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APPENDIX A The Scaleof External Relations The scale of external relations is constructed on a simple numerical basis. A content analysis of the monographs on the 51 cases was carried out. Three of the categories estab­ lished were based on degree of external labor involvement, cash involvement, and national market involvement. For each category a village could be awarded from zero to three units (zero meaning no external involvement and three meaning much external involvement). Thus, a village could end with from zero to nine total units. Any total from zero to four was considered low on the scale; any total from five to nine was considered high on the scale. The following are the criteria for awarding units. CASH 0—never used 1—rarely used within the village or outside 2—moderately used: moderately both within and outside; or rarely within but frequently outside; or frequently within but rarely outside 3—frequently used both within and outside MARKETS 0—completely subsistence 1—primarily peasant market or traditional traders APPENDIX A 2—primarily middlemen who sell to wholesalers; or middle­ men and peasant market or traditional traders; or peasant market or traders combined withmore modern markets (3) 3—primarily cooperative, government, or other marketing organizations; direct selling to wholesale houses, factories, or city entrepreneurs LABOR 0—no external labor 1—very little nonagricultural external labor; any amount of seasonal agricultural labor outside 2—moderate external nonagricultural: any amount of sea­ sonal nonagricultural labor and/or a small amount of daily nonagricultural wage labor 3—large amount of daily external nonagricultural wage labor Fifteen of the 51 villages ended up on the low end of the scale with less than four units; the 36 others were on the high end with five or more. Here is the distribution. Total Units No. Villages 0 12 3 4 0 0 2 6 5a 6 7 8 9 5 7 13 6 3 Incomplete datab See Appendix B for the data on where each village falls on the scale. a Two of these borderline cases (Aritama and San Jilotepeque— see Appendix B) are Latin American villages with two distinct groups, Ladinos and Indians. The Indians, despite contact with the Ladinos, usually have far fewer outside relations than the Ladinos and are comparable to peasants in inward-oriented villages. b Though there was insufficient data to assign an exact number of units, two of the villages definitely had more than five units and the third definitely less than five. ...


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