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Notes Introduction 1. Report of Madison Square Garden Meeting, 3 August 1920, MGP , 2:497–­ 508. 2. Tony Martin, Race First: The Ideological and Organizational Struggles of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1976), 164. 3. C.L.R. James, “From Toussaint L’Ouverture to Fidel Castro,” in The Black Jacobins : Toussaint L’Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution (New York: Vintage Books, 1963), 396. 4. Statement by John E. Bruce, c. January 1918, MGP, 1:236; Emmett J. Scott, “Report on UNIA,”11 December 1918,NA,RG 165,File 10217–­61: Interviews with Du Bois and Owen by Charles Mowbray White, 20–­ 22 August 1920, MGP, 2:609–­ 11, 620–­ 21; A. Philip Randolph,“Garveyism,” Messenger 3, no. 4 (1921), 248–­ 52. 5. Edmund David Cronon, Black Moses: The Story of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1955), 203; Judith Stein,The World of Marcus Garvey: Race and Class in Modern Society (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1986), 6; David Levering Lewis, W.E.B. Du Bois: The Fight for Equality and the American Century, 1919–­ 1963 (New York: Henry Holt, 2000), 39, 70–­ 75. 6. Martin, Race First, ix. 7. See, for example, Emory Tolbert, The UNIA and Black Los Angeles: Ideology and Community in the American Garvey Movement (Los Angeles: Center for Afro-­ American Studies, UCLA, 1980); Mary G. Rolinson, Grassroots Garveyism: The Universal Negro Improvement Association in the Rural South, 1920–­ 1927 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007); Claudrena N. Harold, The Rise and Fall of the Garvey Movement in the Urban South, 1918–­ 1942 (New York: Routledge, 2007); Steven Hahn, The Political Worlds of Slavery and Freedom (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009), 115–­ 62; Robert Trent Vinson, The Americans Are Coming!: Dreams of African American Liberation in Segregationist South Africa (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2011). 8. Steven Hahn, The Political Worlds of Slavery and Freedom (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009), 117–­ 20. 9. Stephen Tuck, We Ain’t What We Ought to Be: The Black Freedom Struggle from Emancipation to Obama (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010), 163. 10. Colin Grant, Negro with a Hat: The Rise and Fall of Marcus Garvey (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008); Wilson Jeremiah Moses, Creative Conflict in African American Thought: Frederick Douglass, Alexander Crummell, Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. Du Bois, and Marcus Garvey (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 231–­32. 11. Wilson Jeremiah Moses, The Golden Age of Black Nationalism, 1850–­ 1925 (Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1978), 197–­ 98. 246 • Notes to Chapter One 12. For example,see Tolbert,UNIA,109–­ 10; Harold,Rise and Fall,2–­ 3; Rolinson, Grassroots, 15. 13. Frederick Cooper,Colonialism in Question: Theory,Knowledge,History (Berkeley : University of California Press, 2005), 3. 14. George Shepperson, “The African Abroad, or the African Diaspora,” in Emerging Themes of African History: Proceedings of the International Congress of African Historians, ed. T. O. Ranger (Nairobi: East Africa Publishing House, 1968), 153, 170; Brent Hayes Edwards,“The Uses of Diaspora,” Social Text 66 (Spring 2001): 52. 15. Kim D. Butler,“Defining Diaspora, Refining a Discourse,” Diaspora 10, no. 2 (2001): 193; James Clifford, “Diasporas,” Cultural Anthropology 9, no. 3 (1994): 306, 315; J. Lorand Matory, Black Atlantic Religion: Tradition, Transnationalism, and Matriarchy in the Afro-­ Brazilian Candomblé (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005), 273. 16. Clifford, “Diasporas,” 306; Frank Guridy, Forging Diaspora: Afro-­ Cubans and African Americans in a World of Empire and Jim Crow (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010), 7. 17. Earl Lewis,“To Turn as on a Pivot: Writing African Americans into a History of Overlapping Diasporas,” American Historical Review 100, no. 3 (1995): 765–­ 87. 18. Matory, Black Atlantic, 290; Edwards, “Uses,” 64; Jacqueline Nassy Brown, Dropping Anchor, Setting Sail: Geographies of Race in Black Liverpool (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005), 6. For a theoretical discussion of the implication of “roots” and “routes,” see Paul Gilroy, The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double-­ Consciousness (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993). 19. I follow George Shepperson in drawing a distinction between “Pan-­ Africanism”—­ the discrete political movement associated with the Pan-­ African congresses of W.E.B.Du Bois (1919,1921,1923,1927,1945) and later embraced by George Padmore and Kwame Nkrumah—­ and “pan-­ Africanism, ” which Shepperson views as a more defuse and undefined “cultural”tradition. It was out of the pan-­ African tradition , I argue, that Garveyism emerged. It was pan-­ Africanism...


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