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The Age of Garvey America in the World Series Editors Sven Beckert and Jeremi Suri A list of titles in this series appears at the back of the book. Princeton University Press Princeton and Oxford The Age of Garvey How a Jamaican Activist Created a Mass Movement and Changed Global Black Politics Adam Ewing Copyright © 2014 by Princeton University Press Published by Princeton University Press, 41 William Street, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 In the United Kingdom: Princeton University Press, 6 Oxford Street, Woodstock, Oxfordshire OX20 1TW Jacket photograph: Black Men Carrying Signs and Portraits in Parade View.© Underwood & Underwood/Corbis. All Rights Reserved Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Ewing, Adam (Historian) The age of Garvey : how a Jamaican activist created a mass movement and changed global Black politics / Adam Ewing. pages cm. — (America in the world) Summary: “Jamaican activist Marcus Garvey (1887–1940) organized the Universal Negro Improvement Association in Harlem in 1917. By the early 1920s, his program of African liberation and racial uplift had attracted millions of supporters, both in the United States and abroad. The Age of Garvey presents an expansive global history of the movement that came to be known as Garveyism. Offering a groundbreaking new interpretation of global black politics between the First and Second World Wars, Adam Ewing charts Garveyism’s emergence, its remarkable global transmission, and its influence in the responses among African descendants to white supremacy and colonial rule in Africa, the Caribbean, and the United States. Delving into the organizing work and political approach of Garvey and his fol­ lowers, Ewing shows that Garveyism emerged from a rich tradition of pan-African politics that had established, by the First World War, lines of communication between black intellectuals on both sides of the Atlantic. Garvey’s legacy was to reengineer this tradition as a vibrant and multifaceted mass politics. Ewing looks at the people who enabled Garveyism’s global spread, including labor activists in the Caribbean and Central America, community or­ ganizers in the urban and rural United States, millennial religious revivalists in central and southern Africa, welfare associations and independent church activists in Malawi and Zambia , and an emerging generation of Kikuyu leadership in central Kenya. Moving away from the images of quixotic business schemes and repatriation efforts, The Age of Garvey demonstrates the consequences of Garveyism’s international presence and provides a dynamic and unified framework for understanding the movement, during the interwar years and beyond”— Provided by publisher. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-691-15779-5 (hardback) 1. Garvey, Marcus, 1887–1940—Influence. 2. Universal Negro Improvement Association—History. 3. African diaspora. I. Title. E185.97.G3E95 2014 305.896’073—dc23  2014003889 British Library Cataloging-­ in-­ Publication Data is available This book has been composed in Sabon Next LT Pro Printed on acid-­ free paper. ∞ Printed in the United States of America 1 3 5 7 9 10 8 6 4 2 To my parents, and to Cathy ...


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