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Appendix Eight Thinkers on the Five Themes First Do: Starting from Where the Doers Are This appendix simply pulls together quotations from eight thinkers on the ‹ve themes so that one can directly see the parallels in autonomyrespecting assistance across a range of helper-doer relationships (some quotations are repeated from the text). For each thinker, the helperdoers appear in a different role: • development advisor-government for Albert Hirschman, • development agency-developing country for E. F. Schumacher, • organizer-community for Saul Alinsky, • educator-community for Paulo Freire, • teacher-learners for John Dewey, • manager-workers for Douglas McGregor, • therapist-clients for Carl Rogers, and • spiritual teacher-learners for Søren Kierkegaard. Albert Hirschman on the First Do I began to look for elements and processes . . . that did work, perhaps in roundabout and unappreciated fashion. . . . [T]his search for possible hidden rationalities was to give an underlying unity to my work. . . . [T]he hidden rationalities I was after were precisely and principally processes of growth and change already under way in the societies I studied, processes 253 that were often unnoticed by the actors immediately involved, as well as by foreign experts and advisors. (Hirschman 1984a, 91–93) E. F. Schumacher on the First Do It is quite wrong to assume that poor people are generally unwilling to change; but the proposed change must stand in some organic relationship to what they are doing already, and they are rightly suspicious of, and resistant to, radical changes proposed by town-based and of‹cebound innovators. (Schumacher 1973, 200) Saul Alinsky on the First Do As an organizer I start from where the world is, as it is, not as I would like it to be. That we accept the world as it is does not in any sense weaken our desire to change it into what we believe it should be—it is necessary to begin where the world is if we are going to change it to what we think it should be. That means working in the system. (Alinsky 1971, xix) Paulo Freire on the First Do In contrast with the antidialogical and non-communicative “deposits” of the banking method of education, the program content of the problem -posing method—dialogical par excellence—is constituted and organized by the students’ view of the world, where their own generative themes are found. (Freire 1970, 101) John Dewey on the First Do Is it the pupil’s own problem, or is it the teacher’s or textbook’s problem, made a problem for the pupil only because he cannot get the required mark or be promoted or win the teacher’s approval, unless he deals with it? . . . Is the experience a personal thing of such a nature as inherently to stimulate and direct observation of the connections involved, and to lead to inference and its testing? Or is it imposed from without, and is the pupil’s problem simply to meet the external requirement? (Dewey 1916, 155) Douglas McGregor on the First Do It is one of the favorite pastimes of headquarters groups to decide from within their professional ivory tower what help the ‹eld organization 254 APPENDIX needs and to design and develop programs for meeting these “needs.” . . . If the staff is genuinely concerned with providing professional help to all levels of management it will devote a great deal of time to exploring “client” needs directly. (McGregor 1960, 168–69) Carl Rogers on the First Do I have not found psychotherapy or group experience effective when I have tried to create in another individual something that is not already there; I have found, however, that if I can provide the conditions that allow growth to occur, then this positive directional tendency brings constructive results. (Rogers 1980, 120) Søren Kierkegaard on the First Do That if real success is to attend the effort to bring a man to a de‹nite position, one must ‹rst of all take pains to ‹nd HIM where he is and begin there. That is the secret of the art of helping others. Anyone who has not mastered this is himself deluded when he proposes to help others . (Kierkegaard in Bretall 1946, 333) Second Do: Seeing through the Doers’ Eyes Albert Hirschman on the Second Do But word soon came from World Bank headquarters that I was principally expected to take . . . the initiative in formulating some ambitious economic development plan that would spell out investments, domestic savings, growth, and foreign aid targets for the Colombian economy over...


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