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Contents Foreword by Albert O. Hirschman xvii Preface xix 1 Introduction & Overview 1 Helping People Help Themselves 1 The Fundamental Helping Self-Help Conundrum 4 The Key Factor in Development Assistance: AutonomyRespecting Help 6 Unhelpful Help 7 The First Don’t: Don’t Override Self-Help Capacity with Social Engineering 8 The First Form of Unhelpful Help 8 The Indirect Approach 11 The Second Don’t: Don’t Undercut Self-Help Capacity with Benevolent Aid 12 The Second Form of Unhelpful Help 12 The Time-Inconsistency Problem of “Gap-Filling Aid” 14 Relief Assistance as Generalized Moral Hazard 14 The Scylla and Charybdis of Development Assistance 16 Knowledge-Based Development Assistance 17 The Cognitive Dimension of Development Assistance 17 The Two Don’ts in Knowledge-Based Assistance 18 Socratic Approach to Doers’ Active Learning 19 The Three Dos 19 The First Do: Start from Where the Doers Are 19 The Second Do: See the World through the Doers’ Eyes 21 The Third Do: Respect the Autonomy of the Doers 22 Eight Thinkers Triangulate a Theory of AutonomyRespecting Help 23 2 Internal & External Motivation: Beyond Homo Economicus 25 Toward a Critique of Agency Theory 25 Nondistortionary Interventions 29 Nondistortionary Taxes and Subsidies 29 The Common Pool Approach to Aid 30 Independence Today, “Supply Effect” Tomorrow 31 Independence and Moral Hazard 32 Commitment Mechanisms to Show Own Motivation 33 Gaming the Safeguards 35 Internal and External Motivation 36 Moving beyond Homo Economicus 36 Foreground and Background 37 Higher and Lower Selves 39 Action = Behavior + Motive 41 By-products Rather Than Products of Choice 43 The Threat-to-Autonomy Effect 44 The Crowding-out Effect 45 The “New Year’s Resolutions” and Internalization Theories of Conditionalities 47 The Universal Solvent Fallacy in the Economic Design of Institutions 49 3 The Indirect Approach 52 From Direct to Indirect Assistance 52 The Indirect Approach in Strategy 53 The Indirect Approach in Biological Learning Mechanisms 54 The Indirect Approach of Selectionist Mechanisms 57 McGregor’s Theory Y: A Prototype Indirect Approach 61 Step 1: Starting from the Doer’s Problem 62 Step 2: Seeing the Problem through the Doer’s Eyes 62 Step 3: Helping the Doer Pursue Their Own Ends to Best Solve the Organizational Problem 62 Step 4: Helping the Doer to Implement, Test, and Refine the Doer’s Solution 63 Step 5: Helping the Doer Gain Autonomy and Take Responsibility for the Solution 63 Intrinsic Motivation and Theory Y 64 4 Indirect Approaches: Intellectual History 68 Background 68 Taoist Antecedents 69 The Socratic Method 70 The Path of Stoicism 73 Learning in Neoplatonism 75 xii CONTENTS Contents xiii The Learning Paradox and Augustine 77 Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s Copernican Revolution in Pedagogy 79 John Dewey and the Active Learning Pedagogy 81 Carl Rogers’ Nondirective Therapy 83 Søren Kierkegaard and Ludwig Wittgenstein on Indirect Communication 85 Gilbert Ryle and Michael Polanyi on Uncodified Knowledge 89 Gandhi and Satyagraha 91 Summary of Common Theme: B-ing and Non-B-ing 97 5 Autonomy-Respecting Development Assistance 100 Development Intervention as a Principal-Agent Relationship 100 First Do: Starting from Present Institutions 104 Second Do: Seeing the World through the Eyes of the Client 107 First Don’t: Transformation Cannot Be Externally Imposed 109 Second Don’t: Addams-Dewey-Lasch Critique of Benevolence 113 Third Do: Respect Autonomy of Doers 118 6 Knowledge-Based Development Assistance 121 The Standard Methodology and Its Problems 121 The Standard Theory-in-Use 121 The Volitional and Cognitive Sides of Helping Theory 122 Ownership Problems 122 Self-Efficacy Problems 126 Cognitive Dependency Problems 127 Examples of Building “In-capacity” 129 Core Courses 129 Training of Trainers 130 Training Networks 130 Fees for Service 132 Evaluations 132 Public Relations and Other Influence Activities 134 Economic and Sector Work: A “Jobs Program” for Bank Economists 135 External Aid Agencies Co-opting Local Talent 137 Unsustainable Missionary Outposts 138 Types of Development Knowledge 139 Universal versus Local Knowledge 139 Codified versus Tacit Knowledge 143 Cargo Cult Reforms: “Where Is the Road That Leads to Cargo?” 144 Knowledge Assistance: Brokering between Experiments, Not Disseminating Answers 147 7 Can Development Agencies Learn & Help Clients Learn? 149 Introduction: A “Church” versus a Learning Organization 149 Roadblock to Learning 1: Official Views as Dogma, with Examples 151 Roadblock to Learning 2: Funded Assumptions as Dogma 158 Roadblock to Learning 3: “Social Science” as Dogma 159 Roadblock to Learning 4: The Rage to Conclude 160 The Open Learning Model 163 Competition and Devil’s Advocacy in the Open...


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