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introduction. Elisabeth and Her Sisters 1. We acknowledge our indebtedness to the research of Cynthia McLeod in recovering the biography of Elisabeth Samson as presented here. 2. Qtd. by McLeod in “Celebrating the Extraordinary Life of Elisabeth Samson ,” 2. 3.McLeod is the author of an academic study,Elisabeth Samson, Een Vrije, Zwarte Vrouw in het 18e Eeuwse Suriname, and a novel, The Free Negress Elisabeth. 4. McLeod, “Celebrating the Extraordinary Life of Elisabeth Samson,” 1–2. 5. Pybus, “Tense and Tender Ties.” 6. Candlin, The Last Caribbean Frontier. 7. See Ginzburg and Poni, “The Name and the Game.” 8. Gaspar and Geggus, A Turbulent Time. 9.This stands in contrast to the kinds of fortune that Linda Colley uncovered for her global history of Elizabeth Marsh. See Colley, The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh. 10. Higman, Slave Populations, 66–72. 11.Welch,“Red” and Black over White; Welch,“Crimps and Captains”; Kerr,“Victims or Strategists.” 12. Scott and Hébrard, Freedom Papers. 13. Bhabha, “White Stuff,” 24. 14.We are building on the work of Daniel Livesay and others who have explored this phenomenon. Livesay, “Children of Uncertain Fortune”; Stoler, “Tense and Tender Ties.” 15. See Wheeler, Complexion of Race; Wilson, The Island Race; Nussbaum, Limits of the Human; Pybus, Black Founders. 16. Ogborn, Global Lives. 17. Equiano, Narrative of the Life; Walvin, An African’s Life; Carretta, Equiano, the African. chapter one. The Free Colored Moment 1. Murdoch, “Land Policy.” For an individual case, see Quintanilla, “Mercantile Communities in the Ceded Islands.” 2. India continued to be a major investment but settlers were forbidden access; see Bowen, Business of Empire, 41; Lawson, East India Company, esp. ch. 6,“The Fall from Grace 1763–84,” 103–26. See also Bryant, “Scots in India in the Eighteenth Century.” For the enthusiasm the cession created, see Hamilton, Scotland, the Caribbean and the Atlantic World. 3. Davis, The Problem of Slavery, 52. notes 182 ~ notes to chapter one 4. O’Shaughnessy, “Formation of a Commercial Lobby.” 5. Melvill is sometimes spelled with an e as in Melville. For consistency, we have used Melvill throughout, since that was the most common spelling. He would later be impeached; see Mackillop and Murdoch, Military Governors and Imperial Frontiers , 188; Melville, A Narrative of the Proceedings upon the Complaint Against Governor Melvill, 1–132; see also A Grenada Planter, A Full and Impartial Answer; and “Memoirs of the Late General Melville.” 6.The phases argument is one advanced by Barry Higman in Slave Populations,43. 7. Candlin, The Last Caribbean Frontier, 29. 8. “Memoirs of the Late General Melville,” 65; see also Hancock, Citizens of the World, 43–71. 9. Burke, The State of the Nation, 12. 10. Occasionally lots of up to five hundred acres were allowed but only rarely; see Murdoch, “Land Policy,” 556. 11. Abstract of Several Informations and Plans Relative to the Settling of Grenada , Tobago, St. Vincent and Dominica, April 1763, box 12/12, Stowe Collection, Grenville Papers, Henry E. Huntingdon Library; Some Hints About Settling the Lands in the New Sugar Islands, undated, box 12/19, ibid., qtd. in Murdoch,“Land Policy,” 554. 12. Marshall, “The Black Caribs.” 13. Beginning with C. L. R. James in 1938, the scholarship on free colored people is now quite extensive. Here are some of the key texts though this is not an exhaustive list: James,The Black Jacobins; Dunker,“The Free Coloured”; Brathwaite,Development of Creole Society in Jamaica; Greene and Cohen, Neither Slave, nor Free; Berlin , Slaves Without Masters; Handler, The Unappropriated People; Sio, “Race, Colour and Miscegenation,” 5–21; Heuman, Between Black and White; Cox, Free Coloureds; Sio, “Marginality and Free Coloured Identity”; Campbell, Cedulants and Capitulants ; Landers, Atlantic Creoles in the Age of Revolutions; and Newton, Children of Africa in the Colonies. 14. Scott, “The Common Wind.” 15. Beginning shortly after the conclusion of the Seven Years’ War, the colonial authorities, urged by the Comte d’Estaing in St. Domingue, began to limit the freedoms of free colored people in the colony; see Dubois, Avengers of the New World, 66. 16. Candlin, The Last Caribbean Frontier, 43. 17. Hamilton, Scotland, the Caribbean and the Atlantic World, 20–21. 18. Mackillop and Murdoch, Military Governors and Imperial Frontiers, xxv–xxx; see also Donaldson, The Scots Overseas; Fry, The Scottish Empire; and Hamilton, Scotland, the Caribbean and the Atlantic World, 140–69; Sheridan,“The Role of Scots in the Economy and Society of the West Indies”; Addo et al., Caribbean Scottish Relations. For...


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