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PREFACE Ethos, asserts George Kennedy, "is much richer in Roman than in Attic oratory and would repay more study than it has received."* This book is intended to meet the need for a closer examination of ethos ("character") as it was used by Roman orators, in particular by Cicero. I have drawn, with gratitude, upon the work of many distinguished predecessors who have touched on this topic; to the synthesis of their ideas I have added my own thoughts and observations about Cicero's manipulation of ethos in his orations. The book begins with a discussion of the importance of ethos, not just in ancient rhetorical theory but also in the social, political, and judicial milieu of Republican Rome. There follows an analysis, in chronological order, of individual speeches from each of four periods of Cicero's life and career, tracing the changes in the way he depicts character, both his own and others', as a source of persuasion-changes intimately connected with the vicissitudes of his career and personal life. It is my hope that this detailed survey of Cicero's "trials of character" will reveal to students of rhetoric just how vital a role ethos played in the art of the Roman orator. Not wishing to exclude from my audience those who are interested in ancient oratory but have not acquired the ability to read Cicero in his own tongue, I have quoted all passages in English. The translations are those found in the Cicero volumes of the Loeb Classical Library; I have altered their substance very seldom, but have taken the liberty of making minor changes of capitalization and punctuation in the interest of consistency of presentation . I have not supplied Latin for brief phrases mentioned in *"The Rhetoric of Advocacy in Greece and Rome," American Journal of Philology 89 (1:436. viii Preface passing, but Latin texts that bear directly upon the interpretation of Ciceronian speeches are supplied in the notes. lowe debts of gratitude to many people and institutions: to the National Endowment for the Humanities for the generous support I received as the recipient of a Fellowship for College Teachers; to St. Olaf College for providing me a sabbatical leave that enabled me to complete this project and for offering a subvention grant to help with the costs of publication; to my colleagues at St. Olaf College, Anne H. Groton and Lloyd L. Gunderson, who spent hours reading the manuscript and making valuable suggestions; to Louis Janus for helping to edit the text on the computer; to the publishers who granted me permission to reproduce here brief passages that have appreared previously in The Classical Journal 74 (1979), Maia, September-December 1980, and The American Journal of Philology 102 (1981); to the distinguished readers for the University of North Carolina Press, W. R. Johnson and D. R. Shackleton Bailey, who offered many perceptive criticisms and mercifully rescued me from numerous potentially embarrassing errors; to the staff of the University of North Carolina Press and especially to Laura S. Oaks, Ron Maner, and Iris Tillman Hill, Editor-in-Chief, whose efficiency, kindness, and consideration have been nothing short of remarkable; and most of all, to George A. Kennedy, without whose guidance and assistance this book could not have been written. For his generosity, support, and words of encouragement , which have sustained me throughout my career, he can never be properly thanked or adequately repaid. Finally, I would like to acknowledge my wife, Donna, for her selflessness, her unflagging devotion, and her willingness to support wholeheartedly every project I have chosen to undertake during our union of nearly twelve years. In many respects this book is as much hers as mine, and it is to her that I dedicate it, with love. One of Martial's epigrams accurately describes the contents of most books: Sunt bona, sunt quaedam mediocria, sunt mala plura quae legis hic: aliter non fit, Avite, liber. If there are bona in this liber, much of the credit for them must go to the people mentioned above; for the mediocria et mala I alone, of course, assume responsibility. St. Olaf College 1 May 1986 ...


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