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Chronology ofGramsci's Life 1891 January 22. Born at Ales in the province of Cagliari, Sardinia. Fourth son of Francesco Gramsci, a clerk in the local registrar's office at Ghilarza, and Giuseppina Marcias. 1897-98 His father is sentenced to five years' imprisonment on charges of maladministration. On his release he has no job, so Antonio Gramsci and his six brothers and sisters grow up in difficult circumstances and deep financial insecurity. Gramsci suffered ill health throughout his life, and from a deformity which left him a hunchback. 1903 On completing his elementary education, has to leave school and work for two years in the local registry office in Ghilarza where the family moved after his father's imprisonment. 1905 Education resumed at Santa Lussurgiu and then at Cagliari. 1911 Wins ·a scholarship to Turin University and begins his studies there; another successful candidate was Palmiro Togliatti. In his first year studies linguistics, Italian literature, geography, Latin and Greek grammar; in later years, moral philosophy, modern history and Greek literature. 1913 Participates in the first elections held on the basis of universal suffrage, and makes his first contacts with the socialist movement in Turin. 1914 Writes his first article for the Socialist paper II Grido del Popolo. 1916 Begins work as a journalist for the Socialist Party paper 131 GRAMSCi'S POLITICALTHOUGHT Avantil, writing theatrical reviews and contributing a polemical column. Writes also for Il Grido del Popolo. 1917 Takes part in the preparations to welcome delegates from the Russian soviets. After the four-day spontaneous insurrection of the Turin workers in August and the arrest of most of the Socialist leaders, Gramsci is elected to the Provisional Committee ofthe Socialist Party. On 24 December celebrates the Russian Revolution with the article 'The Revolution against Capital in Avantil 1919 May. Founds the weekly journal L'Ordine Nuovo with his article 'Workers' Democracy' proposing that the 'Internal Commissions' should be transformed into factory councils as 'organs of proletarian power'. L'Ordine Nuovo becomes the organ ofthe factory councils in Turin. 1920 April. General strike in Turin and Piedmont in defence of the factory councils ends in a partial victory for the employers, owing to the refusal ofthe leadership ofthe Socialist Party and the trade unions to extend it beyond Piedmont. September. Participates in the month-long occupation of the factories which spreads from Milan throughout Italy. 1921 January. Attends the Leghorn congress of the Italian Socialist Party at which the party splits and the Italian Communist Party is founded. Gramsci is elected to the central committee. However the principal influence in the party is not that of the L'Ordine Nuovo group with its concern for the factory councils and the relations between the party and the masses, but that ofits general secretary Amadeo Bordiga with his stress on discipline and centralism, and purity of principles. Gramsci remains in Turin as editor of L'Ordine Nuovo, now a daily paper. 1922 May. Arrives in Moscow as member ofthe Executive ofthe Communist International (Comintern). Spends some months in a clinic near Moscow where he meets his future wife Giulia Schucht. October 28. The 'March on Rome'; Mussolini's fascists seize power in Italy. 132 CHRONOLOGY OF GRAMSCi'S LIFE November-December. Takes part in the Fourth Congress of the Comintern. 1923 While Gramsci is still in Moscow, the police arrest many leading members of the Italian Communist Party, including Bordiga. November. Moves to Vienna, where he engages in a correspondence witJt Togliatti, Terracini and others discussing the new strategy he proposes for the party. 1924 April. Elected deputy in the Veneto constituency. May. Returns to Italy as leader ofCommunist Party. June. Assassination of the Socialist deputy Matteotti. Participates in the secession ofthe parliamentary opposition to the Aventine while campaigning against its passivity and legalism. In November the Communist deputies return to the Chamber. 1925 May. Makes a speech in the Chamber of Deputies against Mussolini's proposal for a law banning all secret associations including the Freemasons. 1926 January. Takes part in the Third Congress of the Italian Communist Party at Lyons in France. The congress approves the 'Lyons Theses' drafted by Gramsci and Togliatti'by an overwhelming majority, confirming that the leftist influence previously exerted by Bordiga has been largely overcome. October. Writes to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union expressing the Italian Party's fears that the fierceness of the struggle between Stalin and Trotsky could end by destroying the leading function which the...


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