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Notes References to Gramsci's works in the text are abbreviated as follows: Selections from Prison Notebooks, edited and translated by Quintin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell Smith, Lawrence and Wishart, London, 1971. SPN Selections from Political Writings, 1910-20, selected and edited by Quintin Hoare, translated by John Mathews, Lawrence and Wishart, London, 1977. SPWI Selections from Political Writings, 1921-26, translated and edited by Quintin Hoare, Lawrence and Wishart, London, 1978. SPWII Selections from Cultural Writings, edited by David Forgacs and Geoffrey Nowell Smith and translated by William Boelhower, Lawrence and Wishart, 1985. SCW Quaderni del Carcere, edited by Valentino Gerratana, Einaudi, Torino, 1975. The complete critical edition of the Prison Notebooks, prepared by the Gramsci Institute in Rome, in three volumes with a fourth volume containing notes, index, etc., edited and with a preface by V.Gerratana. Q Chapter 1 1. Lenin, Collected Works, Vol. 17, Lawrence and Wishart, 1963, pp.57-8. 2. Antonio Gramsci. Life of a Revolutionary translated by Tom Nairn, NLBNerso, London, 1970, new edition 1990. 108 NOTES Chapter 2 3. New uft Review, 100, November 1976-January 1977, pp. 15-17 in an article entitled 'The Antinomies ofAntonio Gramsci'. 4. This is the revised version of this passage. When Gramsci was rewriting some ofhis notes after 1931 he tended to replace the term 'class' by 'social group' presumably to avoid arousing the suspicions ofthe prison censor. However the term social group has a certain advantage for it can be understood to refer, not only to a class, but to part of a class or a particular category of the population. When Gramsci wishes to refer to one of the major social classes (bourgeoisie or proletariat) he uses the phrase 'fundamental social group'. Chapter 3. 5. unin's Political Thought, Vol I. Theory and Practice in the Democratic Revolution, Macmillan, 1977, p.107. 6. Gramsci derived this motto from the French writer Romain Rolland. Chapter 4 7. Earlier analyses were made in the theses presented by Gramsci and Togliatti to the Third Congress of the Italian Communist Party held at Lyons in January 1926 (SPW II 340) and in the unfinished article 'Some aspects ofthe Southern Question' (SPW II 441) which Gramsci was writing at the time ofhis arrest. Chapter 5 8. See, for example, the essays by Bob Jessop and Stuart Hall in Marxism and Democracy, edited by Alan Hunt (Lawrence and Wishart, 1980), and Silver Linings, edited by George Bridges and Rosalind Brunt (Lawrence and Wishart, 1981), especially 'Popular Politics and Marxist Theory in Britain' by Bill Schwarz and Colin Mercer. 9. This suggestion is made by Robert Gray in his article 'Political Ideology and Class Struggle Under Early Industrial Capitalism'in Marxism Today, December 1977, p.370. 109 GRAMSCi'S POLITICAL THOUGHT 10. Emesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe 'Socialist Strategy Where Next?', in Marxism Today, January 1981, p.21. 11. Politics and Ideology in Marxist Theory, NLB, 1977. 12. Gramsci also uses the term 'national-popular' when he compares Italian with French literature and contends that the Italians had no national-popular literature comparable with the popular French novels written in the nineteenth century (Q 2113-20). He also says that French culture had a more strictly national-popular character in that the intellectuals, because of certain specific traditions, tended more than elsewhere to approach the people in order to guide them ideologically and keep them linked with the ruling group (SPN 421). At this point the editors of the SPN insert a note, to the effect that the notion of national-popular is perhaps best taken as describing a sort of 'historic bloc' between national and popular aspirations in the formation of which the intellectuals play an essential mediating role, and that it is a 'cultural concept'. But it is also a political concept. Chapter 6 13. Gramsci also uses the term 'passive revolution' in a different, though related sense, to denote the way in which the capitalist class rose to ascendancy in Italy, Germany and other countries through a process of gradual, molecular change in the course of which the old feudal classes were transformed, in contrast to the French Revolution when they were overthrown: 'the demands which in France found a Jacobin-Napoleonic expression were satisfied by small doses, legally, in a reformist manner - in such a way that it was possible to preserve the political and economic position of the old feudal classes, to avoid agrarian reform and, especially, to avoid the popular masses going through a...


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