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6 The Evolutionary Picture By the time the manuscript we’re writing right now is sent to the printer, some of the information included in the tables below will have changed—and by the time you are reading this, even more changes may have occurred. The DNA revolution in mycology (see chapter 1) has only just begun, and we have little doubt that in future years the names and taxonomic arrangements presented here may appear just as quaint as names like “Collybia dryophila” and “Bo­ letus scaber” appear to today’s readers. But if theories and assumptions weren’t constantly revised on the basis of new data, mycology would be a tradition rather than a science; learning different names and discovering different relationships is inherent in the scientific process. The tables below include only the genera represented in this book; dozens (even hundreds) of mushroom genera are missing. The information is culled from Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi (2008 edition; see Kirk et al. 2008), along with data from several publications that have appeared since, and information from Index Fungorum ( and MycoBank (www Phylum: Ascomycota Subphylum: Pezizomycotina Class: Leotiomyces Order: Helotiales Family: Helotiaceae Genera: Bisporella Order: Leotiales Family: Leotiaceae Genera: Leotia Order: Rhytismatales Family: Cudoniaceae Genera: Spathulariopsis Class: Pezizomycetes Order: Pezizales Family: Discinaceae Genera: Gyromitra Family: Helvellaceae Genera: Helvella Family: Morchellaceae Genera: Disciotis, Morchella, Verpa Family: Pezizaceae Genera: Pachyella, Peziza Family: Pyrenemataceae 398 The Evolutionary Picture Genera: Aleuria, Humaria, Otidea, Scutellinia Family: Sarcoscyphaceae Genera: Microstoma, Sarcoscypha Family: Sarcosomataceae Genera: Galiella, Urnula Class: Sordariomycetes Genera: Camarops, Cordyceps, Elaphocordyceps, Hypomyces, Xylaria Phylum: Basidiomycota Subphylum: Agaricomycotina Class: Dacrymycetes Order: Dacrymycetales Family: Dacrymycetaceae Genera: Calocera Class: Tremellomycetes Order: Tremellales Family: Tremellaceae Genera: Tremella Class: Agaricomycetes Order: Agaricales Family: Agaricaceae Genera: Agaricus, Calvatia, Chlorophyllum, Coprinus, Crucibulum, Cyathus, Cystodermella, Lepiota, Leucoagaricus, Leucocoprinus, Lycoperdon, Macrolepiota, Morganella, Mycenastrum, Nidularia, Vascellum Family: Amanitaceae Genera: Amanita, Limacella Family: Bolbitiaceae Genera: Bolbitius, Conocybe Family Clavariaceae Genera: Clavaria, Clavulinopsis, Ramariopsis Family: Cortinariaceae Genera: Cortinarius Family: Entolomataceae Genera: Clitopilus, Entoloma, Rhodocybe Family: Fistulinaceae Genera: Fistulina Family: Hydnangiaceae Genera: Laccaria Family: Hygrophoraceae Genera: Ampulloclitocybe, Hygrocybe, Hygrophorus Family: Inocybaceae Genera: Crepidotus, Flammulaster, Inocybe, Simocybe Family: Lyophyllaceae Genera: Asterophora, Calocybe, Hypsizygus, Lyophyllum Family: Marasmiaceae Genera: Connopus, Clitocybula, Crinipellis, Gerronema, Gymnopus, Macrocystidia, Tetrapyrgos, Marasmius, Megacollybia, Omphalotus, Rhizomarasmius, Rhodocollybia Family: Mycenaceae Genera: Mycena, Panellus, Xeromphalina Family: Physalacriaceae Genera: Armillaria, Flammulina, Rhizomarasmius, Rhodotus, Xerula Family: Pleurotaceae Genera: Hohenbuehelia, Pleurotus Family: Pluteaceae Genera: Pluteus, Volvariella, Volvopluteus Family: Psathyrellaceae 399 The Evolutionary Picture Genera: Coprinellus, Coprinopsis, Lacrymaria, Parasola, Psathyrella Family: Schizophyllaceae Genera: Schizophyllum Family: Strophariaceae Genera: Agrocybe, Galerina, Hebeloma, Hypholoma, Leratiomyces, Pholiota Family: Tapinellaceae Genera: Tapinella Family: Tricholomataceae Genera: Arrhenia, Callistosporium, Clitocybe, Collybia, Infundibulicybe, Leucopaxillus, Leucopholiota, Melanoleuca, Resupinatus, Tricholoma Family: Uncertain Genera: Gymnopilus, Panaeolus, Phyllotopsis, Rickenella, Tricholomopsis Order: Auriculariales Family: Auriculariaceae Genera: Auricularia, Exidia Family: Uncertain Genera: Ductifera, Pseudohydnum Order: Boletales Family: Boletaceae Genera: Austroboletus, Boletellus, Boletus, Chalciporus, Heimioporus, Leccinum, Phylloporus, Pulveroboletus, Retiboletus, Strobilomyces, Tylopilus, Xanthoconium Family: Calosomataceae Genera: Calostoma Family: Gomphidiaceae Genera: Chroogomphus Family: Gyroporaceae Genera: Gyroporus Family: Hygrophoropsidaceae Genera: Hygrophoropsis Family: Paxillaceae Genera: Gyrodon, Paragyrodon, Paxillus Family: Sclerodermataceae Genera: Scleroderma Family: Suillaceae Genera: Suillus Order: Cantharellales Family: Cantharellaceae Genera: Cantharellus, Craterellus Family: Clavulinaceae Genera: Clavulina Family: Hydnaceae Genera: Hydnum Order: Geastrales Family: Geastraceae Genera: Geastrum Order: Gomphales Family: Clavariadelphaceae Genera: Clavariadelphus Family: Gomphaceae Genera: Gomphus, Ramaria Order: Hymenochaetales Family: Hymenochaetaceae Genera: Coltricia, Inonotus, Phellinus, Porodaedalea Order: Phallales Family: Phallaceae Genera: Mutinus, Phallus, Pseudocolus Order: Polyporales Family: Fomitopsidaceae Genera: Daedalea, Fomitopsis, Ischnoderma, Laetiporus, Phaeolus, Piptoporus 400 The Evolutionary Picture Family: Ganodermataceae Genera: Ganoderma Family: Meripilaceae Genera: Abortiporus, Grifola, Meripilus Family: Meruliaceae Genera: Bjerkandera, Gloeoporus, Mycorrhaphium, Phlebia, Podoscypha, Steccherinum Family: Phanerochaetaceae Genera: Climacodon Family: Polyporaceae Genera: Cerrena, Daedaleopsis, Fomes, Hapalopilus, Lenzites, Panus, Perenniporia, Polyporus, Poronidulus, Pycnoporus, Spongipellis, Trametes, Trichaptum, Tyromyces Family: Sparassidaceae Genera: Sparassis Order: Russulales Family: Albatrellaceae Genera: Albatrellus Family: Auriscalpiaceae Genera: Artomyces, Auriscalpium, Lentinellus Family: Bondarzewiaceae Genera: Bondarzewia Family: Hericiaceae Genera: Hericium Family: Russulaceae Genera: Lactarius, Russula Family: Stereaceae Genera: Stereum Order: Sebacinales Family: Sebacinaceae Genera: Tremellodendron Order: Thelephorales Family: Bankeraceae Genera: Hydnellum, Phellodon, Sarcodon ...


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