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N O T E S Preface 1. By icon, I intend a now common, popular usage, which the Oxford English Dictionary has defined as “a person or thing regarded as a representative symbol, esp. of a culture or movement,” “icon, n.” OED Online, Dec. 2012, Oxford University Press, /Entry/90879?redirectedFrom=icon. 2. Matthew Weiner, “Lady Lazarus,” Mad Men, season 5, episode 8, May 6, 2012. 3. Peter Wicke, Rock Music: Culture, Aesthetics and Sociology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), 105. 4. Dick Hebdige, Subculture: The Meaning of Style (London: Methuen, 1979); Lawrence Grossberg, “Another Boring Day in Paradise,” in Dancing in Spite of Myself: Essays on Popular Culture (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 37. 5. Grossberg, “Another Boring Day in Paradise,” 31. 6. Ibid., 45–49, and Lawrence Grossberg, “Is Anybody Listening? Does Anybody Care?: On ‘The State of Rock,’” in Dancing in Spite of Myself, 113. My reading of rock stardom assumes the idea of “us vs. them” is part of rock stars’ personas but that their stardom demonstrates their cultural inclusion. 7. Arthur Marwick, The Sixties: Cultural Transformation in Britain, France, Italy and the United States, c. 1958–c. 1974 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), 26. 8. Lawrence Grossberg, “‘I’d Rather Feel Bad Than Not Feel Anything at All’: Rock and Roll, Pleasure and Power,” in Dancing in Spite of Myself, 77. CHAPTER 1: Reflections on Stardom and Its Trajectories 1. Robert Greenfield, A Journey through America with the Rolling Stones (London: Helter Skelter, 2001 [1974]), 83. 2. Daniel Herwitz, The Star as Icon: Celebrity in the Age of Mass Consumption (New York: Columbia University Press, 2008), 1–22. 3. Daniel J. Boorstin, The Image: A Guide to Pseudo-Events in America (New York: Random House, 1961), 57. 4. Ibid., 49. 5. P. David Marshall, Celebrity and Power: Fame in Contemporary Culture (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997), 11. See also Chris Rojek, Celebrity (London: Reaktion, 2001). 6. On fame as a distinct category, see Leo Braudy, The Frenzy of Renown: Fame and Its History (New York: Vintage, 1997 [1986]). 7. Fred Inglis, A Short History of Celebrity (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010), 8. 8. Boorstin, The Image, 63. 9. Judith Butler, Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity (New York: Routledge , 1990), 185–93. 10. Inglis, A Short History of Celebrity, 40–41. 11. Marcel Proust, Remembrance of Things Past, vol. 1, trans. C. K. Scott Moncrieff and Terence Kilmartin (New York: Random House, 1981), 80. 12. Denise Scott Brown, “Room at the Top?: Sexism and the Star System in Architecture ,” in Architecture: A Place for Women, ed. Ellen Perry Berkeley (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1989), 237–45, and David Shumway, “The Star System in Literary Studies,” in The Institution of Literature, ed. Jeffrey J. Williams (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2000), 173–201. 13. Richard Dyer, Stars, new edition (London: BFI, 1998), 20. 216 Notes to Pages 5–20 14. Marshall, Celebrity and Power, 234. 15. Roland Barthes, “The Face of Garbo,” in Mythologies, trans. Annette Lavers (New York: Hill and Wang, 1972), 56. 16. Budd Schulberg quoted in Brown, “Room at the Top?,” 241. 17. Joshua Gamson, Claims to Fame: Celebrity in Contemporary America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994), 145–47. 18. Jackie Stacey, Star Gazing: Hollywood Cinema and Female Spectatorship (London: Routledge , 1994). 19. Brown, “Room at the Top?,” 241. 20. Richard Schickel, Intimate Strangers: The Culture of Celebrity in America (Chicago: Ivan Dee, 2000 [1985]), 25. 21. Richard deCordova, Picture Personalities: The Emergence of the Star System in America (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2001), 51. 22. Samantha Barbas, Movie Crazy: Fans, Stars, and the Cult of Celebrity (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2001), 21–22. 23. Walter Benjamin, “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction,” in Illuminations , trans. Harry Zohn (New York: Schocken, 1960), 221. 24. Herwitz, The Star as Icon, 59–78. 25. See Greil Marcus, Dead Elvis: A Chronicle of a Cultural Obsession (New York: Doubleday , 1991). 26. Steven J. Ross, Hollywood Left and Right: How Movie Stars Shaped American Politics (Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2011), 363–407. 27. Gamson, Claims to Fame, 32. 28. Dyer, Stars, 35. 29. Barbas, Movie Crazy, 36. 30. Ibid., 35–36. 31. Ross, in Hollywood Left and Right, calls Chaplin “the first political movie star” (11). The subtitle, How Movie Stars Shaped American Politics, might suggest a disagreement between us, but I see his book as...


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