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INTRODUCTION 1. Minutes, January 18, 1848, continuation of January 5 meeting of the municipal council of the city of Toluca, box 5, folder 26, Archivo Histórico Municipal de Toluca de Lerdo, Toluca, México. 2. In this text, the terms “partisan” and “guerrilla” are used interchangeably. CHAPTER 1 The epigraph comes from Guillermo Bonfil Batalla, México Profundo: Reclaiming a Civilization, trans. Philip A. Dennis (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1996), xviii. 1. William M. Denevan, ed., The Native Population of the Americas in 1492 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1976), 291; Woodrow Borah and Sherburne F. Cook, “The Aboriginal Population of Central Mexico on the Eve of the Spanish Conquest,” Ibero-Americana 45 (1963): 88–90. Although historians Woodrow Borah and Sherburne F. Cook defend a higher population estimate of 25,400,000, the continuously disputed veracity of their figures is such that accepting Denevan’s more prudent figure remains a desirable choice. As used herein, central México includes all of the territory of the present-day states of Colima, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, México, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Puebla, Tlaxcala, and Veracruz as well as parts of the states of Guanajuato, Querétaro, and Zacatecas. 2. Timothy E. Anna, The Fall of the Royal Government in Mexico City (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1978), 6. 3. Fernando (Hernán) Cortés, Letters from Mexico (New York: Grossman, 1971), 105, 108. 4. Charles Gibson, The Aztecs Under Spanish Rule: A History of the Indians of the Valley of México, 1519–1810 (Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1964), 403–404. 5. Ibid., 406–407. 6. Lewis Hanke, Aristotle and the American Indians: A Study in Race Prejudice in the Modern World (Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, 1959), 47. 7. Ibid. 8. Strictly speaking, an encomienda consisted of a grant issued by the colonial government that entitled its possessor to commandeer the labor of designated indigenous people. In return, the holder of the encomiendas bore an obligation to provide his charges with sustenance and spiritual guidance. Such obligations were far more frequently ignored than observed. Bartolome de la Casas, A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies (London: Penguin Books, 1992). 9. Smuggling provides an illustrative example. Since mercantilist laws severely limited the importation of overseas products, the smuggling of such wares developed into a popular and lucrative practice. Levinson_Wars_text_new_WarsLayoutNew4.11.05 10/18/13 2:09 PM Page 131 10. Guillermo Bonfil Batalla discussed the development of this sort of patriotism in México Profundo, 95–96. This interpretation also is found in general texts such as Michael C. Meyer and William L. Sherman, The Course of Mexican History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), 275–76. 11. Enrique Florescano, Memory, Myth, and Time in México: From the Aztecs to Independence (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1994), 184. Florescano contrasted this situation with that of the pre-conquest period, in which “the protagonist was a people or ethnic group united by one language, one origin, and one territory.” 12. Lucas Alamán, Historia de México (Mexico City: Editoria Jus, 1942), 1: 403–404. 13. For a lengthier explanation of this interpretation of the end of México’s war for independence, please refer to John Lynch, The Spanish-American Revolutions, 1808–1826 (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1973), 319–33. The best history of those Mexicans who joined in writing the Constitution of Cadiz remains Nettie Lee Benson, The Provincial Deputation in Mexico (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1955). 14. José María Luis Mora, Ensayos, ideas, y retratos (Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, 1941), 17. 15. Ibid., 159. 16. Ibid. 17. Waddy Thompson, Recollections of México (New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1846), 12. 18. Ibid., 150. Since a league’s traditional measure is three miles, Thompson’s statement means that such properties ranged in size from 720 to 900 square miles. 19. Excerpts from El diario del gobierno, July 22, 1838, and September 2, 1835, are in Michael Costeloe’s essay entitled, “Hombres de bien in the age of Santa Anna,” in Jaime E. Rodriguez O, ed., Mexico in the Age of Democratic Revolutions (Boulder: Lynne Reiner Publishers, Inc., 1994), 252–53. 20. Ibid., 247. 21. A different school of thought holds that the ascension of liberals to some of México’s highest offices and the Constitution of 1824 prove that the 1821–46 period was not dominated by a criollo oligarchy. Also, a recent work by...


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