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In 1995, Dr. Edward Countryman told me, “No one ever truly writes history alone.” In that year, I did not fully understand the meaning of his words. Now, after seven years as a historian, I do. This project was born through the efforts of many individuals; they deserve both this written acknowledgment as well as my deepest appreciation. Dr. John Mason Hart, University of Houston, proved to be an exemplary mentor, guide, and critic for my work. His exceptional knowledge of México’s history and archives enabled me to achieve far more than would otherwise have been the case. Dr. Hart’s enthusiasm for his colleagues and their work remains constant. Dr. Thomas F. O’Brien, Dr. James Kirby Martin, and Dr. R. Andrew Chesnut provided vigorous analysis of my work, and Dr. Fred Schiff offered valuable observations from his perspective as a sociologist. Dr. Joe Glaathaar, noted military historian, was the source of much good counsel during the research phase of my work. These scholars gave unstintingly of their time, and I am indebted to them. In Mexico City, Colonel José Manuel Zozaya Gallegos earned my deepest appreciation. His decision to grant my petition for access to the Archivo de la Defensa Nacional in Mexico City enabled me to review some extraordinary source materials. His willingness to grant me broad access to documents about a period that still arouses the deepest sentiments both north and south of the Río Bravo (Rio Grande) represents the highest traditions of our profession. In several respects, the colonel’s facility proved exceptional. The skills of his staff in preserving materials may be judged by one statistic: Of the Levinson_Wars_text_new_WarsLayoutNew4.11.05 10/18/13 2:08 PM Page vii viii Wars within War 12,086 pages I reviewed, only two had suffered deterioration. The cataloguing efforts of current and previous Defensa staff produced a chronological listing of the archive’s holdings grouped into thousands of folders, each of which had splendidly specific titles often running to ten or more lines. The lieutenant, sergeants, corporals, and privates with whom I worked on a daily basis consistently aided my efforts and repeatedly demonstrated their deep knowledge of and enthusiasm for their nation’s history and heritage. Also, I did not see a single frown or hear one raised voice during almost a year of work in their archive. Que les vayan bien. In Xalapa, Licensado Antonio Riquelme graciously provided full access to the extraordinarily detailed records kept by that community’s cabildo (municipal council) during 1845–49. The hours I spent in the sunny, breezy high-ceilinged chamber that serves as the municipal archive’s reading room remain among my most pleasant memories of México. Also, Licensado Riquelme is the only archivist of my acquaintance in either nation who provides his guests with classical radio music to drown out any street noise. American archivists also provided exceptional support. At the National Archives and Records Administration, in Washington, DC, Mr. Michael Musick suggested several additional avenues of research, each of which proved to be highly rewarding. Mr. David Keough provided a similar level of assistance at the US Army Military Institute in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. He and his colleague, Dr. Richard Somers, thoroughly enjoy history and welcomed the opportunity to discuss my topic, making several valuable suggestions. Sooner or later, all US scholars of Latin America journey to the University of Texas’ Benson Latin American Collection. For me, as for so many others, a search of the library’s collection yielded splendid treasure. Levinson_Wars_text_new_WarsLayoutNew4.11.05 10/18/13 2:08 PM Page viii Although all of the staff with whom I worked in Austin unfailingly provided excellent assistance, I owe a particular debt to Carmen Sacomani. She not only possesses a unique depth of knowledge of the archival material at the Benson, but also of materials at other leading facilities in North America. J. W. Fulbright Scholarship Commission funds enabled me to review far more material than otherwise would have been the case. In Mexico City, that agency’s affiliate organization, the Fulbright-García Robles Program, helped with many details. Two of its staff, Omi Kerr and Sara Levy, deserve the admiration and friendship of all who work with them. My research in the United States received substantial support from the University of Houston History Department’s Murray Miller Scholarship Program, allowing me to conduct research at the National Archives and Records Administration in Washington, DC; at the Library of Congress; and...


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