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Glossary ahl-i kitab {ahl-i kitab): the people of the book; those who are members of authentic (albeit superceded) religions. ahl-i sunnat wajama'at (ahl-i sunnat wajama at): a term used by Indian Barelwis to describe themselves. Also see Sunni. akhlaq (akhldq): good qualities, virtues, dispositions. 'aim ('alim; pi. 'ulama'): a learned man, in particular one learned in Islamic legal and religious studies. 'amaliyyat (pi. 'amaliyyat): practices, specifically words, phrases, numerical charts, etc., understood to have special power. 'amm ('amm): ordinary people, in contrast to the elite or khass, here defined by spiritual rather than sociological criteria. ashraf(ashraf): the well-born, in India comprising the four qaum (q.v.) of sayyid (the descendents of the Prophet); shaikh (descendents of his Companions); Mughal; and Pathan. auqaf (auqaf): see waqf. bai'at: a vow of allegiance to a pir as his disciple or murid. baqa (baqa): abiding eternally in God; a stage on the Sufi path often understood to follow fana, absorption or extinction of the self in God. baradari (baradari); brotherhood; the patrilineage within which, by custom, marriage is preferred. barakat: blessing, holiness, spiritual power inherent in a saint; conveyed in tabarruk, sacred relics or blessings. Chishti (Chishti): a Sufi path of those initiated into the chain of succession that begins with Mu'inu'd-Din of Ajmer NOTE: Based in part on M.G.S. Hodgson, The Venture of Islam (Chicago, 1974) III, 449-454, and onJohn T. Platts, A Dictionary of Urdu, Classical Hindi, and English (London, 1968 reprint). 361 Glossary (d. 1236); divided into the two branches of nizamiyyah (nizamiyyah) and sabiriyyah (sabiriyyah). daroghah (daroghah): the head man of an office; an inspector of police. dars-i nizami (dars-i nizami): a syllabus of religious education current in South Asia from the eighteenth century. daru'l-islam (ddru'l-islam): lands under Muslim rule; later, any lands in which Muslim institutions are maintained, whether or not under Muslim rule. It is the converse of daru'l-harb, the "lands of war." daru'l-'ulum (daru'l-'ulum): a place of advanced religious learning, superior to a madrasah, darwesh: see Sufi. fana (fana): see baqa. faqir (faqir): see Sufi. Fatihah (fatihah): opening chapter of the Qur'an, often repeated over food on customary occasions, at graves, etc. fatwa (fatwa; pl.fatawa): the opinion of a mufti on a point of law. fiqh: jurisprudence; the discipline of elucidating the shari'at (q.v.); also the resultant body of rules. ghair-muqallid: one who does not follow the historic law schools but consults the Qur'an and hadis; the Ahl-i Hadis. gyarhwin (gydrhwin): the festival held in commemoration of the death of Shaikh 'Abdu'l Qadir Gilanl (10781166 ); literally, "eleventh." hadis (hadis): the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad based on the authority of a chain of transmitters. hafiz (hafiz): a person who has memorized the Qur'an. hajj (hajj): the annual pilgrimage to Mecca, required of every Muslim once in his life if possible. hakim (hakim): see tibb. Hanafi (Hanafi): referring to the Sunni legal mazhab (q.v.) ascribed to Abu-Hanifa (699-767). Hanbali (Hanbali): referring to the Sunni legal mazhab (q.v.) ascribed to Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780-855). hazrat (hazrat): presence, dignity, a title applied to any great person. 362 Glossary 'ibadat ('ibadat; pi. 'ibadat): religious obligations, particularly those of the canonically prescribed rituals, owed by man to God. 'id ('id): a festival. 'Idu'l-fitr, the great 'id following the fast of Ramazan and 'idu'l-azha, the 'id of the sacrifice commemorating Abraham's offering of his son Ishmael. ijazat (ijazat): permission, specifically of a student to offer instruction himself. ijtihad (ijtihad): individual inquiry to establish the ruling of the shari'at (q.v.) upon a given point, by a mujtahid, a person qualified for the inquiry. The Sunnis have considered ijtihad permissible only on points not already decided by recognized authorities; on points already so decided they require taqlid, adherence to the usual view of one's mazhab (q.v.). imam (imam): (1) leader of the canonical prayer; or the leader of the Muslim community; (2) among the Shi'ah, 'AIi and his descendants as proper leaders of the Islamic community, even when rejected by it, held to have a spiritual function as successors to Muhammad; (3) among Sunnis, any great 'alim (q.v.), especially the founder of a legal school. imkan-i nazir (imkan-i naztr): "the possibility of an equal"; a subject of debate as to whether God...


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