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Note on Transliteration I have transliterated Urdu letters into English according to the chart on the following page. I have followed Platts1 in making choices about the pronunciation of short vowels, which, of course, are not usually noted in the script: Thus if Urdu takes suluk to be correct, not saluk, I have used that. Unlike Platts I do not distinguish actual pronunciation of short vowels when they vary in response to their linguistic environment, for example where "u" becomes "o," "i" and "a" become "e" when followed by "h" or "h." These variations are not included so as to give a more consistent rendering of the words as written. Hence suhbat rather than sohbat, mihrban rather than mehrban, mahbub rather than mehbub. In the text I have transliterated without diacriticals in order to present a less encumbered appearance. Thus, I write 'ulama, somewhat less denuded than the ulama one sometimes finds, since I represent the letter 'ain (as I do hamza except at the end of a word). I appreciate very much the argument of Marshall Hodgson that diacriticals are crucial in order to accommodate the eye and ear to Muslim words and to make one comfortable with them,2 but the full representation of the words is given here only in the glossary (there alone is 'ulairw!). Similarly, personal names are presented without diacriticals, but names that appear in the index are to be found fully transliterated there. Titles of books are fully transliterated in the notes and bibliography . Plurals are formed in a variety of ways in Urdu, depending on whether the noun is of Arabic, Persian, Hindi, or some other origin. Generally I have simply added an "s" to the transliterated word to make a plural, particularly if 1. John T. Platts, A Dictionary of Urdu Classical Hindi and English (Delhi, 1977; first published 1884). 2. Marshall G. S. Hodgson, The Venture of Islam: Conscience and History in a World Civilization (Chicago, 1974), I, 4-6. XUl Transliteration the word is somewhat familiar in English—thus Sufis, muf­ tis, hajjis, and so on. In two cases I have kept the Arabic "broken" plural: 'ulama as plural of 'atim; and fatawa as plural oifatwa. These two are frequently used words here, and their singular form is not familiar. In general I have avoided Anglo-Indian forms of Urdu words. I do this because I am working from Urdu, not from English spoken in India. Thus I write not moulvi, but maulawi, not nawab, but nawwab, not punkah, but pankha. Nor have I used the "loan-word" form of terms that have come into English from other Muslim languages. I write kadis, not hadith; zikr, not dhikr; Ramazan, not Ramadan. For place names I generally use the common English form of well-known places: Delhi, not Dihli; Allahabad, not Ilahabad. I use Oudh and Punjab for the correct Awadh and Panjab because in British India the former were official titles. When a place name becomes a locative, I transliterate correctly (e.g. Dihlawi, Ilahabadi). Long Vowels: a, ϋ, and ϊ Short Vowels: a, u, and i Dipthongs: au, o, ai, and e Consonants are represented as (in the Urdu alphabetical order): b, p, t, t, s, j , ch, h, kh, d, d, z, r, z, zh, s, sh, s, z, t, z, e , gh, f, q, k, g, 1, m, η, ή (for nazalization), w, h, y, ' (for hamza). Persian izafah: -i; -yi (after silent h or vowel) Arabic definite article: al-, lam assimilated before "sun" letters Examples of names: Shah Waliyu'llah, 'Abdu'l-'Aziz XlV Islamic Revival in British India: Deoband, 1860-1900 ...


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