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Acknowledgments I should like to thank the staffs of the several educational institutions at which I worked in the course of research in India in 1969-1970. During that period I was able to visit the theological academy at Deoband several times and to use the excellent records and library of the school. I should like particularly to thank the director of the madrasah at Deoband, Qari Muhammad Tayyib Qasimi, and his family for their warm hospitality and interest in my work, and also the chief archivist, Sayyid Mahbub Rizwi, for his gracious help. I also visited the Mazahiru'l-'Ulum in Saharanpur ; the Madrasatu'l-Islah in Sara'e Mir; the Nadwatu'l- 'Ulama and Farangi Mahall, both in Lucknow; and the Aligarh Muslim University in Aligarh. To the staffs of all these schools I am deeply grateful. I am grateful as well to the staff of the Lucknow Secretariat Record Room and Library who facilitated my use of government records. Pradeep Mehendiratta, Director, and the American Institute of Indian Studies provided me with financial support and a welcoming base in Delhi. Since this book is based on my doctoral dissertation I should also like to acknowledge the generosity of the Woodrow Wilson Fellowship Foundation and the National Defense Foreign Language Program of the United States government who supported me during preliminary years of graduate study. It is with pleasure that I thank the many teachers I encountered in the course of a long education. Jean Herskovits (now at SUNY, Purchase) influenced me as an undergraduate at Swarthmore College not only to share her enthusiasm for the study of the British Empire but also to consider the possibility of a career in teaching. Ralph Russell, of the University of London, most skilled and generous teacher and scholar of Urdu, has been an inspiration to me for many years. The late Aziz Ahmad of the University of Toronto encouraged and advised me in our common field. Robert Frykenberg of the University of Xl Acknowledgments Wisconsin introduced me to the study of South Asian history . During my subsequent graduate years at the University of California at Berkeley, and since, Bruce Pray and Moazzam Siddiqi (the latter now at Duke University) guided me in the intricacies of Urdu. Hamid Algar, as supervisor of my dissertation, provided a perspective on Islam that enlarged my own. Ira Lapidus, teacher and friend throughout , has stimulated my work at every turn. As if that were not enough, he detoured from a recent Himalayan holiday to take the photographs included in this book. Many people have read all or part of the manuscript with imagination and care, among them Gerhard Bowering, Katherine Ewing, Warren Fusfeld, Masood Ghaznavi, Khalid Mas'ud, and Gail Minault. David LeIyveld saw this work in many incarnations and never failed to observe sagely, criticize pointedly—and encourage still. Sandria Freitag, informed critic and unflagging friend, typed and pondered the manuscript with great skill. Laurel Steele, Platts in hand, ably put it into final shape. Kathleen and David Ludden, renaissance persons both, drew the excellent maps. Margaret Case, herself a historian of Muslim India, has made publication with Princeton a delight. To her and to all I am grateful, for it is their company that makes an enterprise like this the pleasure it fundamentally is. Finally, I thank my husband, Tom, who shares my fascination with the history of Agra and Oudh. His thorough and insightful scholarship has long set me a worthy standard ; and his companionship has been my mainstay. Berkeley, California July, 1980 XIl ...


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