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Notes Intioduction 1. Charles Ε. Rosenberg, "The Therapeutic Revolution: Medicine, Mean­ ing, and Social Change in Nineteenth-Century America," Pespectives in Bi­ ology and Medicine, 20 (1977): 485. 2. Several historians have recently made use of American practice records to describe therapeutic behavior. See David L. Cowen, Louis D. King, and Nicholas G. Lordi, "Nineteenth Century Drug Therapy: Computer Analysis of the 1854 Prescription File of a Burlmgton Pharmacy," Journal of the Medical Society of New Jersey, 78 (1981): 758-761; J. Worth Estes, "Therapeutic Prac­ tice m Colonial New England,"in Medicine in Colonial Massachusetts, 16201820 , ed. Philip Cash, Eric H. Christianson, and J. Worth Estes (Boston: Co­ lonial Society of Massachusetts, 1980), pp. 289-383; Regina Markell Morantz and Sue Zschoche, "Professionalism, Feminism, and Gender Roles: A Com­ parative Study of Nineteenth-Century Medical Therapeutics," fournal of American History, 63 (1980): 568-588; and Martin S. Pernick, A Calculus of Suffering: Pain,Professionalism, and Anesthesia m Nineteenth-CenturyAmerica (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985). 3. The decision toexclude surgical therapeuticswas byno meansarbitrary. At least through the 1860s the mechanical aspects of surgical therapeutics (though not its medical ones) held an epistemological status fundamentally different from that occupied by medical therapeutics. Surgical therapeutics was notgoverned by the principle of specificity in the same wayas was medical therapeutics (see Chapter 3); instead, some surgical precepts derived from one type of patient and environment could be transferred and applied relatively freely to a different context. Accordingly, many of the generalizations I make are inapplicable to the mechanical manipulations that were important in sur­ gical, dental, and obstetricaltherapeutics, and these therefore require aseparate analysis. 4. Erwin H. Ackerknecht, "A Plea for a 'Behavionst' Approach in Writing the History of Medicine,"BHM, 22 (1967): 211-214. 1. Intervention and Identity 1. N. West, "Commencement Address," CLO, 38 (1877): 317. 2. Pierre Louis to James Jackson, Sr., Paris, 22 May 1833, James Jackson Papers, MA—Countway. Tocqueville's comment appears in his section "Why 290 NOTES TO PAGES 12-15 the Americans Are More Concerned with the Applications than with the The­ ory of Science," in Demociacy m America, ed. J. P. Mayer, trans. George Lawrence (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1969; first pub. 1835), p. 461. 3. James Jackson, A Memoir of fames Jackson, Jr., M.D., with Extracts from His Letters to His Father; and Medical Cases, Collected by Him (Boston, 1835), p. 55. 4. Several such letters are pasted into the Louisiana physician George Colmer's Record Book, vol. 1, LA—Tulane U. Libe. For example, on 20 April 1869 Uriah Duck sent his son to Colmer with a note saying, "i am verry bad of and ι send to you for some medical aide if you will be kind enoughe to send me some medisine and directions to youse it ι will be much oblige to you and if i get able to work a gaine ι will settel withe you for your troubel and medisines." 5. S., "Medical Improvement," BMSJ, 9 (1833-34): 203. 6. My thinking about the professional identity of American physicians has been shaped especially by Barbara Gutmann Rosenkrantz, "The Search for Professional Order in 19th-century AmericanMedicine," in Sickness and Health in America: Readings in the History of Medicme and Public Health,ed. Ronald L. Numbers and Judith Walzer Leavitt, 2nd ed. (Madison: University of Wis­ consin Press, forthcoming). 7. Sv "Medical Improvement," p. 327. 8. "Health of the Country," New Orleans Medical Journal, 1 (1844-45): 247; and see Η. V. Wooten, Address before the Alabama State Medical Asso­ ciation at Its First Regular Session in Selma, 9 March 1848, Hardy Vickers Wooten Papers, AL—State Archives. 9. J. C. Nott to Colonel Beck, Mobile, 7 January 1862, Samuel Hollingsworth Stout Papers, NC—Duke U. Libe. 10. James Jackson, Sr., to James Jackson, Jr., Waltham, Massachusetts, 16 June 1832, Jackson Papers. 11. John Ware, "Success in the Medical Profession," BMSJ, 43 (1850-51): 498. 12. Ibid., p. 503. 13. J. M. Bonner to Mother, New Orleans, 5 May 1860, Samuel C. Bonner and Family Papers, LA—LSUi and see Joseph Milligan to Joseph A. S. Milligan, Augusta, [Georgia], 4 June 1846, Milligan Family Papers, NC—SHC. 14. Report of the Committee of Ethics, Minutes of the Meeting of the Hamilton County Medical Association, Madisonville, 29 March 1853, in Wil­ liam C. Langdon, Record Book, 1853-1900, OH—Cincinnati Hist. Soc.; and see William L. Broyles, "The Life of a Physician" (M.D. thesis, University of Nashville, 1857), TN—Vanderbilt...


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