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331 Epi­ logue Leg­ a­ cies of the East­ ern Ques­ tion Lu­ cien J. Frary and Mara Ko­ zel­ sky Mac­ e­ do­ nia ­ Square, the cen­ tral meet­ ing place in ­ Skopje, Re­ pub­ lic of Mac­ e­ do­ nia, is part of an am­ bi­ tious “anti­ quiza­ tion” pro­ ject fi­ nanced by the govern­ ment that re­ flects the bus­ tling cap­ i­ tal as a his­ tor­ i­ cal cross­ roads. Syn­ the­ siz­ ing more than two mil­ len­ nia of his­ tory, the ­ square’s cen­ ter­ piece fea­ tures an enor­ mous white mar­ ble foun­ tain with a ­ twentytwo -meter-high ­ bronze Al­ ex­ an­ der the Great on a rear­ ing Bu­ ceph­ alus. Gotse Del­ chev and Dame Gruev, rev­ o­ lu­ tion­ ary lead­ ers and found­ ers of­ nineteenth-century in­ de­ pen­ dence move­ ments in Bul­ garia and Mac­ e­ do­ nia, flank stat­ ues of the Byz­ an­ tine em­ peror Jus­ tin­ ian I (whose birth­ place is ­ twelve miles out­ side ­ Skopje), and Tsar Sam­ uel, the ­ leader of the me­ di­ eval Bul­ gar­ ian Em­ pire. Newly im­ a­ gined ­ twentieth-century he­ roes, such as the lex­ i­ cog­ ra­ pher Dim­ i­ trija Chu­ pov­ ski and the Yu­ go­ slav pol­ i­ ti­ cian Met­ o­ dija ­ Andonov-Chento, com­ plete this ­ pantheon of nation­ alis­ tic­ kitsch, in­ cor­ po­ rat­ ing the na­ tive cham­ pions of sev­ eral Bal­ kan ­ states. Anach­ ron­ is­ tic pub­ lic mon­ u­ ments like these il­ lu­ mi­ nate the con­ fus­ ing na­ ture of bor­ ders and iden­ tities in the Bal­ kans. The “Skopje 2014” pro­ ject, which in­ cludes plans for about ­ twenty build­ ings and forty mon­ u­ ments, under­ scores the ­ fraught pol­ i­ tics of his­ tor­ i­ cal mem­ ory and Statue of Alexander the Great on horseback in Macedonia Square, Skopje, Macedonia. (photo by Raso MK / Wikimedia Commons) Epilogue 333 the at­ tempt of Mac­ e­ do­ nians to grap­ ple with a state ­ created, in part, by the East­ ern Ques­ tion. When the Ot­ to­ man Em­ pire col­ lapsed in the wake of the First World War, the East­ ern Ques­ tion by all ap­ pear­ ances ex­ pired. Many con­ tem­ po­ rary ob­ serv­ ers re­ garded the Trea­ ties of ­ Sèvres (1920) and Lau­ sanne (1923) as the de­ noue­ ment to the strug­ gle for the Ot­ to­ man in­ her­ i­ tance. Brit­ ish pol­ i­ ti­ cian and his­ to­ rian J. A. R. Mar­ ri­ ott con­ cluded the ­ fourth edi­ tion of his land­ mark study, pub­ lished in 1940, with the trans­ fer­ ence of the Turk­ ish cap­ i­ tal from I ˙ stan­ bul to An­ kara and the crea­ tion of the mod­ ern Turk­ ish Re­ pub­ lic. Ac­ cord­ ing to Mar­ ri­ ott, “the birth of a new Na­ tion in the brac­ ing at­ mos­ phere of An­ a­ to­ lia” ­ closed one as­ pect of the East­ ern Ques­ tion. He ­ vaguely con­ ceded, how­ ever, that other fac­ tors still ­ awaited so­ lu­ tions.1 More de­ ci­ sively, M. S. An­ der­ son ended his 1966 sur­ vey with a dis­ cus­ sion of the peace trea­ ties of the post­ war years: “With the Lau­ sanne set­ tle­ ment the East­ ern Ques­ tion was no more.”2 An­ der­ son ­ argued that the dis­ ap­ pear­ ance of em­ pires lim­ ited the ri­ val­ ries of the great pow­ ers and fos­ tered the ­ well-being of ­ nation-states. Still, An­ der­ son also ­ hinted at the trou­ bles em­ bed­ ded in un­ satis­ fied ter­ ri­ to­ rial­ claims. In such a man­ ner, the two stan­ dard works of the East­ ern Ques­ tion al­ luded to is­ sues un­ re­ solved by the post­ war set­ tle­ ment.3 Be­ gin­ ning in the nine­ teenth cen­ tury, the East­ ern Ques­ tion ­ evolved from Eu­ ro­ pean pre­ sump­ tions to man­ age a per­ ceived Ot­ to­ man de­ cline into an elab­ orate inter­ na­ tional con­ test in­ volv­ ing mil­ lions of peo­ ple and doz­ ens of ­ states. The pat­ tern of com­ pe­ ti­ tion and ri­ valry, how­ ever, did...


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