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221 “Forty Years of Black Days”? The Rus­ sian Ad­ min­ is­ tra­ tion of Kars, Ar­ da­ han, and Batum, 1878–1918 Can­ dan Badem This chap­ ter ex­ am­ ines the basic ten­ ets of the Rus­ sian “MilitaryCustomary Ad­ min­ is­ tra­ tion” (Voenno-narodnoe up­ rav­ le­ nie) and the Rus­ sian re­ set­ tle­ ment (col­ o­ ni­ za­ tion) pol­ icy in Kars, Ar­ da­ han, and Batum from the Rus­ sian an­ nex­ a­ tion in 1878 until the ­ Treaty of ­ Brest-Litovsk in 1918.1 While there is a siz­ able lit­ er­ a­ ture on the Rus­ sian ad­ min­ is­ tra­ tion in the Cau­ ca­ sus in gen­ eral, very few stud­ ies in Rus­ sian, En­ glish, Ar­ me­ nian, or Turk­ ish have been de­ voted to the Rus­ sian ad­ min­ is­ tra­ tion of this area.2­ Whereas con­ tem­ po­ rary Rus­ sian his­ to­ rians have al­ most for­ got­ ten about these ter­ ri­ to­ ries, works by Turk­ ish, Kurd­ ish, Geor­ gian, and Ar­ me­ nian his­ to­ rians are gen­ er­ ally ­ marked by na­ tion­ al­ ist inter­ pre­ ta­ tions, with few ex­ cep­ tions. There­ fore, one of my goals is to dis­ pel na­ tion­ al­ ist myths. An­ other goal is to ex­ am­ ine the ­ out-migration of Mus­ lims from the re­ gion fol­ low­ ing the ­ Treaty of Con­ stan­ tin­ o­ ple (1879). In the three years fol­ low­ ing the ­ Treaty of Con­ stan­ tin­ o­ ple ­ between Rus­ sia and the Ot­ to­ man Em­ pire, a ­ treaty that gen­ er­ ally af­ firmed the Trea­ ties of San Ste­ fano (1878) and Ber­ lin (1878), more than 110,000 Mus­ lims from Kars and Ar­ da­ han and more than 30,000 Mus­ lims (with a few Ar­ me­ ni­ ans) from 222 Candan Badem Batum and Art­ vin aban­ doned their na­ tive lands and mi­ grated to the Ot­ to­ man Em­ pire. Turk­ ish na­ tion­ al­ ist historiog­ ra­ phy until now has de­ picted the years under Rus­ sian rule (1878–1918) as “forty years of black days” (kırk yıllık kara ­ günler) and has con­ sid­ ered the Mus­ lim ex­ o­ dus from 1879 to 1882 as ­ forced by the Rus­ sian govern­ ment.3 I argue that the Rus­ sian ad­ min­ is­ tra­ tion was not as “black” or bad as­ claimed by na­ tion­ al­ ist his­ to­ rians, and that the Rus­ sian ad­ min­ is­ tra­ tion did not force the local Mus­ lim pop­ u­ la­ tion to em­ i­ grate, al­ though it en­ cour­ aged ­ out-migration by some in­ di­ rect in­ cen­ tives. The ­ out-migration of Mus­ lims from these ter­ ri­ to­ ries after the an­ nex­ a­ tion was ­ largely due to the un­ will­ ing­ ness of the Mus­ lim ­ elites and the ­ masses led by them to live as Rus­ sian sub­ jects and to some Ot­ to­ man in­ cen­ tives to em­ i­ grate. These Mus­ lim ­ elites (not­ ables, ­ clergy, of­ fi­ cials, and mer­ chants deal­ ing­ mainly with the state) ­ feared loss of their priv­ i­ leged ­ status under the new Rus­ sian ad­ min­ is­ tra­ tion. Some eco­ nomic rea­ sons also ­ played a role for at least some of the em­ i­ grants. Sec­ ond, I argue that ­ nearly half of the Mus­ lim em­ i­ grants from the re­ gion re­ turned to Rus­ sia le­ gally or il­ le­ gally, a fact that is ­ hardly men­ tioned in Turk­ ish historiog­ ra­ phy. Fur­ ther, I as­ sert that the Rus­ sian pol­ icy in these ter­ ri­ to­ ries was com­ plex and in­ con­ sis­ tent, and the Rus­ sian ad­ min­ is­ tra­ tion in the end was un­ suc­ cess­ ful in col­ o­ niz­ ing the re­ gion with Rus­ sian peas­ ants or even with Chris­ tians in gen­ eral to a sig­ nif­i­ cant de­ gree. Fi­ nally, al­ though this chap­ ter fo­ cuses on the re­ la­ tion­ ship ­ between Rus­ sian pol­ icy and the Mus­ lim mi­ gra­ tion from the Cau­ ca­ sus, it is worth high­ light­ ing the role ­ played by the many­ Russian-Ottoman wars and...

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Additional Information

ISBN
9780299298036
Related ISBN
9780299298043
MARC Record
OCLC
883373257
Pages
320
Launched on MUSE
2014-07-19
Language
English
Open Access
No
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