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On September 11, 2001, I was in Washington just over the river from the Pentagon when it was attacked and several blocks from the White House—the apparent target of the fourth hijacked jetliner. Like most Americans I was struck by the intensity of feeling that would lead nineteen young men to immolate themselves in the effort to kill several thousand civilians going about their daily business, civilians that could have easily included me. This led me to ask what was occurring in the larger Muslim society that could have bred this extreme hostility. Surely the feelings that were expressed that day were not developed sui generis, in complete isolation from the culture in which these young men were born. Indeed, when the 9/11 attacks were reported in some cities in the Muslim world, many people openly expressed celebratory feelings. To understand such feelings, being a psychologist as well as an international survey researcher, I felt a need to go to the Muslim world to sit down with Muslims and let them speak. It took little prompting before they poured out their feelings, often aimed at me as the most available target and symbol of America. These feelings turned out to be complex and layered. At the most immediate level was a narrative based on the image of America as a force that seeks to coercively dominate the Muslim world, exploit its resources, vii Preface 00A-0559-8 FM:0305-1 3/3/11 1:51 PM Page vii and undermine its religion. With time, though, a more subtle level of feelings emerged in which people showed a strong sense of rapport with America and the values it represents. This was coupled with a deep sense that America has betrayed the Muslim people by proffering these values as a basis for amicable and trusting relations and then failing to live up to them. It was, however, at this level of discussion that the Muslims I spoke with revealed some implicit hope that relations between America and the Muslim world could be redeemed. Out of these direct conversations in focus groups I began to develop survey questions to determine how widespread these various feelings were. Developing these surveys was a joint venture with many other individuals who made major contributions in writing questions and analyzing the results. Particularly helpful were other staff members at the Program on International Policy Attitudes (PIPA) where we spent many hours carefully crafting questions. Most notable was Clay Ramsay, research director and cofounder of PIPA. In addition to making invaluable contributions to the questionnaire development, Stephen Weber managed the complex process of conducting the surveys in numerous countries. Evan Lewis managed the statistical data. Ebrahim Mohseni worked diligently to ensure that I understood the deepest nuances of the Muslim perspective. Melanie Ciolek coordinated the survey partners and together with Abe Medoff carried out numerous critical functions in the process of gathering and organizing the data and performing other research assistance. A key adviser was Shibley Telhami, who cotaught seminars with me on Muslim public opinion and made many valuable contributions to the drafts of the book. Others who gave useful advice were Abdel Latif, Fares Braizat, Mathew Warshaw, Nabil Kukali, Zsolt Nyiri, Flynt Leverett, and Marina Ottaway. The National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START) at the University of Maryland was a major source of support for the first two sets of surveys conducted in four countries and for some of the writing of the text. Scholars at START made key contributions to developing the questionnaires, especially Clark McCauley, Arie Kruglanski, Mansoor Moaddel, and Gary LaFree. Others at START who played important roles in bringing these surveys to realization were Gary Ackerman, Kathy Smarick, Victor Asal, and Laura Dugan. The surveys for START, subsequent surveys, and the recruitment of focus group participants were conducted by survey centers that were part viii Preface 00A-0559-8 FM:0305-1 3/3/11 1:51 PM Page viii of the network. These included A.C. Nielsen Pakistan and SEDCO in Pakistan, Attitude Market Research and the Emac Research and Training Center in Egypt, Deka Marketing Research and Synovate in Indonesia, the Center for Strategic Studies at the University of Jordan, Leger Marketing in Morocco, the Palestinian Center for Public Opinion in the Palestinian Territories, the ARI Foundation/Infakto Research Workshop in Turkey, D3 Systems/Afghan Center for Social and Opinion Research in Afghanistan, the International Center for Social Research in...


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