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Bibliography Archives The most significant primary sources for this book were the nuns’ letters, journals, and constitutions housed in the Archives of the Sisters of the Holy Cross, Saint Mary’s, Notre Dame, Indiana; Archives, Motherhouse of the Incarnate Word, San Antonio, Texas; Archives of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Carondelet, St. Louis, Missouri, and St. Paul, Minnesota; and Sisters of Providence Archives, Saint Mary-of-the-Woods, Indiana. These repositories contain data on individual nuns, including dates of entrance to the community, places of birth, records of deaths, and lists of work assignments . Particularly important sources are “annals,” or chronicles of events in sisters’ congregations. For example, the Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word kept chronicles or “remark books” of hospital events in the late nineteenth century for both Santa Rosa and St. Joseph’s infirmaries. And the Sisters of the Holy Cross maintained “annals” or “archive books” of monthly events for each of the three hospitals represented in this study: St. Mary’s Hospital, Cairo, Illinois; Holy Cross Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah; and St. Joseph’s Hospital, South Bend, Indiana. Because of the many authors, these “annals” vary in detail. Catholic sisters often did not sign their names to their writings, reflecting their attempts to avoid calling attention to themselves. Such was the case with their “annals.” Other congregational records include Rules and constitutions , directories, council minutes, hospital annual reports, and chapter books, the Chapter being the elected legislative body of the congregation. Primary sources also include letters by mothers superior and superior generals. For example, Sister Kathleen Garvey translated the letters of Mother Pierre Cinquin of the Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word in San Antonio. These documents are part of an extensive collection that also includes letters that Sister Gabriel Wheelahan wrote for Mother Madeleine Chollet. The papers of Mother M. de Chantal Keating are located in the Archives of St. Joseph Convent, Brentwood, New York. Unfortunately , letters by Mother Angela Gillespie of the Sisters of the Holy Cross and Mother Seraphine Ireland of the Sisters of St. Joseph were destroyed years ago. Other superiors ’ letters, however, are located in the sisters’ archives. Nuns’ letters and documents of wartime nursing are also readily available in the 237 Wall_Bib_3rd.qxd 4/11/2005 3:02 PM Page 237 sisters’ archives. In 1894, Mother Augusta Anderson of the Holy Cross order sent a questionnaire to the surviving Civil War nurses. It asked them when and where they served during the war, with whom they served, who was in charge, and how long they stayed. She also asked them to recall any memorable incidents that occurred during their wartime service. Sister Emerentiana Nowlan was one of twelve Holy Cross Sisters who worked in army camps during the Spanish-American War. She asked the sisters to keep diaries and then maintained them in a large ledger. In addition to the diaries, her collections include nuns’ letters, photographs, and newspaper clippings pertaining to the war camps and the war itself. A series of letters written by the Sisters of St. Joseph during the Spanish-American War to the St. Louis motherhouse are located in the archives there. The group’s superior, Mother Liguori McNamara, wrote most of them. Anniversary issues of hospitals, physicians’ letters, conferences, and letters by priest superiors of women’s orders are located in university archives. For example, retreat records for the Sisters of the Holy Cross and letters from Father Edward Sorin, CSC, to the sisters are located in the Archives of the University of Notre Dame and in the Indiana Province Center Archives, South Bend, Indiana. The University of Utah in Salt Lake City houses minutes of physicians’ meetings that took place at Holy Cross Hospital in the early twentieth century. I obtained other records on hospitals at the Taubman Library at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; the Utah State Historical Society, Salt Lake City; Vigo County Library, Terre Haute, Indiana; the Memorial Hospital Archives Project, South Bend, Indiana; the Catholic Health Association in St. Louis, Missouri; and the Marillac Provincial House of the Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, St. Louis, Missouri. Census Records Annual Report of the U. S. Comptroller of the Currency to the First Session of the FiftySixth Congress of the United States. Vol. 1. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1899. Department of the Interior, Census Office. Report on Statistics of Churches in the United States at the Eleventh Census: 1890. Washington, DC: Government Printing...


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