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Notes Preface 1. Mary Douglas, How Institutions Think (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1986), 4. 2. Cynthia Smith, Cathy Cowan, Art Sensenig, Aaron Catlin, and the Health Accounts Team, “Trends: Health and Spending Growth Slows in 2003,” Health Affairs 24, no. 1 (January–February 2005): 185–89. 3. James C. Scott, Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985). For further discussion, see Michel Foucault, “Truth and Power,” in, Power/Knowledge, ed. Colin Gordon (New York: Pantheon, 1980), 109–33; and Mario Biagioli, Galileo, Courtier: The Practice of Science in the Culture of Absolutism (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1993), 2. Introduction 1. Although the word “nun” specifically refers to a member of a cloistered religious order, it is popularly used today and will be used interchangeably with “sister” and “women religious.” 2. “Record of Apostolic Service, Lidwina Butler,” Congregation of the Sisters of the Holy Cross, Saint Mary’s, Notre Dame, IN (hereafter cited as CSC). 3. “Facts About the Catholic Health Association of the United States” (St. Louis, MO: Catholic Health Association, November 29, 2000). 4. Christopher J. Kauffman, Ministry and Meaning: A Religious History of Catholic Health Care in the United States (New York: Crossroad, 1995), 193. 5. Two exceptions are Mary J. Oates, The Catholic Philanthropic Tradition in America (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995); and Angelyn Dries, OSF, The Missionary Movement in American Catholic History (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1998). 6. See, for example, Renate Wilson, Pious Traders in Medicine: A German Pharmaceutical Network in Eighteenth-Century North America (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000). 197 Wall_Notes_3rd.qxd 4/11/2005 3:02 PM Page 197 7. This high intake of Irish sisters was typical when compared to entrants in English , Welsh, and Australian religious communities. See Sioban Nelson, Say Little, Do Much: Nursing, Nuns, and Hospitals in the Nineteenth Century (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001); and Barbara Walsh, Roman Catholic Nuns in England and Wales, 1800–1937: A Social History (Dublin and Portland, OR: Irish Academic Press, 2002). 8. Hasia R. Diner, Erin’s Daughters in America: Irish Immigrant Women in the Nineteenth Century (Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983), 120–21, 152 (for quotation). 9. John O’Grady, Catholic Charities in the United States: History and Problems (Washington, DC: National Conference of Catholic Charities, 1930; repr., New York: Arno Press, 1971), 195–96; “The Chronological Development of the Catholic Hospital of the United States and Canada,” Hospital Progress 21 (April 1940): 122–33; and Ursula Stepsis, CSA, and Dolores Liptak, RSM, eds., Pioneer Healers: The History of Women Religious in American Health Care (New York: Crossroad, 1989), 287. 10. See Barbra Mann Wall, “Healthcare as Product: Catholic Sisters Confront Charity and the Hospital Marketplace, 1865–1925,” in Commodifying Everything: Relationships of the Market, ed. Susan Strasser (New York: Routledge, 2003), 143–68. 11. For sources on Protestant women, see Nancy F. Cott, The Bonds of Womanhood: “Woman’s Sphere” in New England, 1780–1835 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977); Peggy Pascoe, Relations of Rescue: The Search for Female Moral Authority in the American West, 1874–1939 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990); Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, Righteous Discontent: The Women’s Movement in the Black Baptist Church, 1880–1920 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993); and Ruth Bordin, Women and Temperance:The Quest for Power and Liberty, 1873–1900 (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1990). 12. Walsh, Roman Catholic Nuns; Suellen Hoy, “The Journey Out: The Recruitment and Emigration of Irish Religious Women in the United States, 1812–1914,” Journal of Women’s History 6 and 7 (Winter/Spring 1995): 63–98; Jo Ann Kay McNamara, Sisters in Arms: Catholic Nuns throughTwo Millennia (Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press, 1996); Carol K. Coburn and Martha Smith, Spirited Lives: How Nuns Shaped Catholic Culture and American Life, 1836–1920 (Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, 1999); Margaret Susan Thompson, “Sisterhood and Power: Class, Culture, and Ethnicity in the American Convent,” Colby Library Quarterly 25 (1989): 149–75; and Patricia Wittberg, The Rise and Fall of Catholic Religious Orders: A Social Movement Perspective (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994). 13. Kauffmann, Ministry and Meaning; and Kathleen M. Joyce, “Science and the Saints: American Catholics and Health Care, 1880–1930” (PhD diss., Princeton University , 1995), 119. 14. Nelson, Say Little, Do Much. For an earlier study on Irish nuns, see Mary Patricia Tarbox, “The Origins of Nursing by...


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