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Notes preface Epigraph One. Fritz Redlich, “Toward Comparative Historiography,” Kyklos 11 (1958): 379. Epigraph Two. J. E. Harris, “The African Diaspora Connection,” in Slavery in the South-West Indian Ocean, ed. U. Bissoondoyal and S. B. C. Servansing (Moka, Mauritius: Mahatma Gandhi Institute, 1989), 3. Epigraph Three. Thomas C. Holt, “Slavery and Freedom in the Atlantic World: Reflections on the Diasporan Framework,” in Crossing Boundaries: Comparative History of Black People in Diaspora, ed. Darlene C. Hine and Jacqueline A. McCleod (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999), 39. Epigraph Four. En Vogue, Free Your Mind, 1. Anonymous reviewer’s report, “The Great Emancipators: How Slaves Destroyed Slavery in the Americas,” for The Journal of American History, enclosure in Edward T. Linthal, editor, to Jeffrey Kerr-Ritchie, January 19, 2011. 2. For a model study of transnational history in a global context, see Sugata Bose, A Hundred Horizons: The Indian Ocean in the Age of Global Empire (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2006). 3. Paul E. Lovejoy, Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in Africa (1983; New York, Cambridge University Press, 2012), 137. 4. Ira Berlin, Generations of Captivity: A History of African-American Slaves (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004), table 1; Robert Conrad, The Destruction of Slavery in Brazil, 1850–1888 (Malabar, Fla.: Krieger Publishing Co., 1993), 210 (figure is for 1864); Franklin Knight, Slave Society in Cuba During the Nineteenth Century (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1970), 86. 5. For the conceptual distinction between slave societies and societies with slaves that has strongly influenced slaves studies, see Moses I. Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology (1980; Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998). 6. George Reid Andrews, Afro-Latin America 1800–2000 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004), 40. 7. Samuel Ward deserves a thorough biography. I thought of doing one myself, but other projects intervened. Chapter 4, below, serves in lieu. 8. Kim Butler’s “Introduction: Brazil and the Afro-Atlantic Diaspora,” in Freedoms Given, Freedom Won: Afro-Brazilians in Post-Abolition Sao Paulo and Salvador (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1998), 1–15, outlines a diasporic framework for emancipation, but we still await 164 notes to pages 2–3 her major comparative contribution. For a taste, see Butler’s “Abolition and the Politics of Identity in the Afro-Atlantic Diaspora: Toward a Comparative Approach,” in Crossing Boundaries, ed. Hine and Jacqueline McCleod, 121–33. I should add that Kim’s project began as a master’s thesis at Howard University. introduction Epigraph One: Julie Greene, “Historians of the World: Transnational Forces, Nation-States, and the Practice of U.S. History,” Workers Across the Americas: The Transnational Turn in Labor History, ed. Leon Fink (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), 12. Epigraph Two: Robert Gregg, Inside Out, Outside In: Essays in Comparative History (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000), 5. Epigraph Three: Matthew Pratt Guterl, American Mediterranean: Southern Slaveholders in the Age of Emancipation (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2008). 1. Frederick Saunders, ed., Our National Centennial Jubilee (New York: E. B. Treat, 1877), 52, 191, 215, 352. The bargain referred to by Armitage was 20 million pounds in compensation to slaveholders as one of the key terms of the 1833 British Abolition of Slavery Act. 2. Ian Tyrell, “American Exceptionalism in an Age of International History, American Historical Review 96 (October 1991): 1031–55; Tyrell, “Making Nations/Making States: American Historians in the Context of Empire,” Journal of American History (December 1999): 1015–44; George Frederickson, “From Exceptionalism to Viability: Recent Developments in Cross-National Comparative History,” Journal of American History (September 1995): 587–604; Gregg, Inside Out, Outside In. 3. C. V. Woodward, “Emancipations and Reconstructions: A Comparative Study,” International Congress of Historical Sciences (Moscow: NAUKA Publishing House, 1970), subsequently republished as “The Price of Freedom,” in What Was Freedom’s Price? ed. David G. Sansing (Jackson : University of Mississippi Press, 1978), 93–113. All references are to the 1970 edition. 4. Eric Foner, Nothing But Freedom: Emancipation and Its Legacy (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1983). 5. George Fredrickson, “After Emancipation: A Comparative Study of the White Responses to the New Order of Race Relations in the American South, Jamaica, and the Cape Colony of South Africa,” in What was Freedom’s Price? ed. Sansing, 71–92. This was subsequently republished as “White Responses to Emancipation: The American South, Jamaica, and the Cape of Good Hope,” in George Fredrickson, The Arrogance of Race: Historical Perspectives on...


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