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Notes 1 The Transformations of Darwinism Many of the primary sources for this chapter, including books and papers by Bateson , Darwin, de Vries, Galton, Weismann, Mendel, Morgan, Wright, and others, can be found through the Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project’s web-based version of Sturtevant’s A History of Genetics (1965) at Nine years later A further brief discussion of the historical background to evolutionary ideas is given in chap. 11. See also Gissis and Jablonka (2011) chaps. 2–14 for discussions of neo-Lamarckism and of the Modern Synthesis, Schwartz (2008) for a readable account of the development of ideas about heredity from Darwin onward, and Sapp (2009) for the history of evolutionary thinking about patterns of descent. 1. Among the best of the many accounts of the debates surrounding evolutionary theories are those by Bowler (1989a), who gives a good historical overview of the changing fortunes of ideas about evolution, particularly since the mid-nineteenth century, and by Depew and Weber (1995), who take a more philosophical approach and include recent ideas about the evolution of complex systems. 2. Maynard Smith’s generalization of evolution through natural selection can be found in his The Problems of Biology (1986), chap. 1. A somewhat different formulation was given by Lewontin (1970). Griesemer (2000a) discusses the differences between Maynard Smith’s and Lewontin’s approaches, and puts their views into a wider philosophical and biological context. 3. Darwin discussed the heritable effects of use and disuse and environmentally induced changes in the 1st ed. of The Origin (1859), particularly in chap. 4. He developed this discussion further in the 5th and 6th eds., in which he responded to criticisms of his theory. 4. Lamarck set out his evolutionary ideas in Philosophie zoologique (1809), but revised some of them in later publications. A summary of Lamarck’s theory and the changes he introduced can be found in Burkhardt (1977), chap. 6. Lamarck’s views were not 458 Notes to Chapter 1 widely accepted during his lifetime, and Philosophie zoologique was not translated into English until 1914. Georges Cuvier, Lamarck’s colleague and one of the most influential biologists of the time, ridiculed Lamarck’s ideas, especially in the “eulogy” written after Lamarck’s death in 1829. This “eulogy,” read in 1832, was widely disseminated and was the source of major misrepresentations of Lamarck’s ideas for decades to come. A translation of Cuvier’s “Éloge de M. Lamarck” can be found in the 1984 reprint of Zoological Philosophy (the English translation of Philosophie zoologique). Disparaging comments about Lamarckian views are still the norm today, when they are usually patronizingly presented as reflecting a failure to understand Darwinism, developmental biology, and basic logic. For a representative example, see Cronin (1991) pp. 35–47. 5. For his provisional hypothesis of pangenesis, see Darwin (1868) vol. 2, chap. 27. Robinson (1979) reviews other nineteenth-century pangenesis-like theories of heredity. According to Darwin’s letter to his cousin Francis Galton, he started developing his pangenesis theory in the early 1840s. The often-repeated claim that Darwin developed Lamarckian ideas only as a result of criticism, and against his own better judgment, is a myth refuted by both his own letters and a reading of the 1st ed. of The Origin. 6. Darwin discusses Virchow’s cell theory and alternative views about cell formation in chap. 27 of the 1st ed. (1868) of The Variation (vol. 2, p. 370), where he states, “As I have not especially attended to histology, it would be presumptuous in me to express an opinion on the two opposed doctrines.” In the 2nd ed. (1883), his discussion is much the same, but this sentence is omitted. 7. Weismann’s ideas, which evolved over the years, can be found in his many clearly written and well-translated books and essays. His heredity-development theory is described in The Germ-Plasm (1893a); his mature thoughts on heredity, development, and evolution are presented in The Evolution Theory (1904), which includes his ideas about the origin of variations through changes in the quality and quantity of determinants (vol. 2, chaps. 25 and 26) and his views on levels of selection (vol. 2, chap. 36). 8. Burt (2000) evaluated Weismann’s ideas about the significance of sexual reproduction in the production of variation. In the light of modern evolutionary theory, he concluded that they are basically correct. 9. According to Bowler’s (1983, 1988) very readable accounts of the...


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