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Since Evolution in Four Dimensions was first published, there has been a spate of new and exciting discoveries in biology. Many of the new findings are directly relevant to the topics we discussed in 2005, by and large supporting and often strengthening the arguments we put forward then. In addition to new facts, new ideas about evolution have also emerged; biologists have been questioning the assumptions on which twentieth-century evolutionary theory was based, and have proposed alternative ways of approaching evolutionary problems. In this edition of E4D, we introduce some of the new knowledge and fresh ideas, in the firm belief that they add weight to our view that the old, gene-based, Modern Synthesis version of evolutionary theory is inadequate for the twenty-first century. We have left parts I to III of the book almost unchanged from the original edition, making only a few minor corrections, mainly typographical. For the benefit of ebook readers, we have also numbered all the endnotes chapter by chapter, and included markers for them in the text. Most of the new material is to be found in part IV, which is a single, long, additional chapter. To carry the reader through this we have made use of the dialogue form employed elsewhere in the book, with our interrogator (IM) asking us (ME) questions and questioning the answers we give. The chapter has five sections; in the first four, we go through each of our dimensions—the genetic, the epigenetic, the behavioral, and the symbolic—reviewing and updating the ideas and facts presented earlier. We devote quite a lot of space to the involvement of epigenetics in the other dimensions of heredity, because there has been an explosion of information in this area, which is both empirically and conceptually groundbreaking for evolutionary theory. In the fifth section of the chapter, we look at the general implications of the work we have been describing for ideas about evolution. Preface to the Revised Edition x Preface At the beginning of the endnotes for each chapter, we have added a short “nine years later” paragraph, in which we signpost where in the literature recent information is to be found. Many references have been added to the reference list, and there are additional entries in the index. With the help of Anna Zeligowski’s drawings, we have tried to present the new material in a way that retains the spirit of the original edition of E4D and enhances its usefulness. ...


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