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Notes Abbreviations used APC CSP, Domestic CSP, Foreign CSP,Rome CSP, Scotland CSP, Spain CSP, Venice DNB L&P OED Salisbury Papers SP Acts ofthe Privy Council ofEngland Calendar ofState Papers, Domestic Series Calendar ofState Papers, Foreign Series Calendar ofState Papers, Relating to English Affairs Preserved Principally at Rome, Elizabeth, 1572 -78 Calendar ofState Papers, Relating to Scotland and Mary, Queen ofScots, 1547-1603 Preserved in the Public Record Office, the British Museum, and Elsewhere in England Calendar ofthe Letters and State Papers Relating to English Affairs Preserved in, or originally Belonging to, the Archives ofSimancas Calendar ofState Papers and manuscripts relating to English affairs, existing in the archives and collections ofVenice, and in other libraries ofNorthern Italy Dictionary ofNational Biography. Letters and Papers ofthe Reign ofHenry VIII Oxford English Dictionary Historical Manuscripts Commission. Calendar ofthe Manuscripts ofthe Marquis ofSalisbury Preserved at Hatfield House State Papers in the Public Records Office 174 Notes to Pages r-4 Chapter One: Introduction 1. Chapter six deals extensively with this and her other speeches; see note 43 there for a discussion ofthe evidence that these were her words. 2. Within the last few decades there have been many superb works on women's history that provide a complex theoretical structure to questions of historic gender roles, women's status, and avenues toward power for women. Works by such historians as Joan Kelly, Gerda Lerner, Joan Scott, and Natalie Davis have been instrumental in helping me form my own ideas about Elizabeth I and how to understand her within the context oflarger issues about gender and history. 3. I am here following the lead of historian Jenny Wormald, who states unequivocably, "There can be no doubt of her failure as a ruler." Mary Queen of Scots: A Study in Failure (London: George Philip, 1988), 187. 4. Recently there have been a number of new biographies and studies of Elizabeth. Within the last few years we have seen the publication of Susan Bassnett , Elizabeth I: A Feminist Perspective (Oxford: Berg, 1988); Christopher Haigh, Elizabeth I: Profile in Power (London and New York: Longman, 1988); Anne Somerset , Elizabeth I (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991); Christopher Hibbert, The Virgin Queen: The Personal History ofEizabeth I (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1991), Rosalind K. Marshall, Elizabeth I (Owings Mill, MD: Stemmer House, 1992), and Maria Perry, The Word ofA Prince: A Life ofElizabeth I from Contemporary Documents (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1990). Bassnett's focus is interesting but the book is brief. Somerset's study is especially solid and accomplished; however , all these books except Haigh's are biographies. While Haigh's is also thematic , his approach is completely different from mine and examines Elizabeth in relationship to a variety ofgroups such as the nobility, the Council, the Court, and Parliament. My work complements but does not duplicate the work ofsuch English Renaissance literary scholars as Louis Montrose, "Shaping Fantasies: Figurations of Gender and Power in Elizabethan Culture," Representations I, 2 (Spring, 1983), 61-94 and his "The Elizabethan Subject and the Spenserian Text," in Literary Theory/Renaissance Texts, ed. Patricia Parker and David Quint (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986), 303-40; Leah Marcus, "Erasing the Stigma of Daughterhood: Mary I, Elizabeth I, and Henry VIII," in Daughters and Fathers, ed. Lynda E. Boose and Betty S. Flowers (Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989), 400-417; Marcus, "Shakespeare's Comic Heroines, Elizabeth I, and the Political Uses of Androgyny," in Medieval and Renaissance Women: Literary and Historical Perspectives, ed. Mary Beth Rose (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1986), 135-53; Marcus, Puzzling Shakespeare: Local Reading and Its Discontents (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1988); John N. King, "Queen Elizabeth I: Representations of the Virgin Queen," Renaissance Quarterly 43 (Spring 1990), 30-74; King, Tudor Royal Iconography: Literature andArt in anAge ofReligious Crisis (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989); King, Spensers Poetry and the Reformation Tradition (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990); Philippa Berry, OfChastity and Power: Elizabethan Literature and the Unmarried Queen (New York: Routledge, Chapman & Notes to Pages 4--6 175 Hall, 1989); Susan Frye, Elizabeth I: The Competition for Representation (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993). The work ofMontrose, Marcus, and King has influenced my own thinking about Elizabeth, though I also disagree with some of their conclusions. As literary scholars they use their insights on Elizabeth to discuss the major writers of the time such as Shakespeare and Spenser and to place a study ofElizabeth within a framework ofthe impact ofher...


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