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211 Notes Abbreviations DU Duke University Special Collections, Durham, North Carolina LSU Hill Memorial Library, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge LVA Library of Virginia, Richmond MOC Eleanor S. Brockenbrough Library, The Museum of the Confederacy, Richmond, Virginia OR U.S. War Department, The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies SHC Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill UALR UALR Center for Arkansas History and Culture, Arkansas Studies Institute , Little Rock VHS Virginia Historical Society, Richmond Introduction 1. James Paul Verdery to sister, 31 July 1864, Eugene Verdery Papers, DU. Throughout, I quote soldiers as they wrote, only using “[sic]” when ambiguity threatens. 2. The previously accepted figure of 620,000 battle deaths has recently been challenged by historians (see Hacker, “A Census-Based Count of the Civil War Dead”). 3. On guilt over slavery, see Hattaway, Jones, and Beringer, Why the South Lost the Civil War, 336–97. 4. Wiley, The Life of Johnny Reb, 10. 5. Glatthaar, “The ‘New’ Civil War History.” 6. J. I. Robertson, Soldiers Blue and Gray, 9. 7. R. Mitchell, Civil War Soldiers, 4–5. 8. Roland, Reflections on Lee, 109–10. 9. McPherson, For Cause and Comrades, 91. 10. Power, Lee’s Miserables, 302. 11. Berry, All That Makes a Man, 188. 12. Manning, What This Cruel War Was Over, 32 (first quotation); Phillips, Diehard Rebels, 4 (second quotation). 212 notes to pages 5–15 13. Glatthaar, General Lee’s Army, 176; Sheehan-Dean, Why Confederates Fought, 34; Noe, Reluctant Rebels, 10. See also Laskin, “Good Old Rebels,” 45–94. 14. Exceptions include Mohr, On the Threshold of Freedom; Levine, Confederate Emancipation; E. L. Jordan, Black Confederates and Afro-Yankees in Civil War Virginia ; and Robinson, Bitter Fruits of Bondage. 15. Peter Coclanis once waggishly wrote that some historians employ a Woody Hayes–like methodology of “three anecdotes and a cloud of (documentary) dust” (Coclanis , “Thirty-Six Views of Mount Morgan,” 360). Coclanis was referencing Woody Hayes, the legendary football coach at Ohio State University who once said that his coaching style involved “three yards and a cloud of dust.” 16. McPherson, For Cause and Comrades, 110. Other Civil War historians have employed larger sample sizes. Joseph Glatthaar’s research for General Lee’s Army was based on the writings of 1,000 men; Aaron Sheehan-Dean’s Why Confederates Fought used a sample size of 993; Elisabeth Laskin’s “Good Old Rebels,” 647; Chandra Manning’s What This Cruel War Was Over, 477; and Kenneth Noe’s Reluctant Rebels, 320. 17. See Escott, “What Shall We Do with the Negro?” 1. “The Question of Slavery” 1. W. W. Freehling, Prelude to Civil War; Sinha, The Counterrevolution of Slavery ; Ford, Origins of Southern Radicalism. 2. William Grimball to sister, 20 November 1860, John B. Grimball Papers, DU. 3. John L. Agurs to cousin, 24 December 1860, Eglantine Agours Letters, DU. 4. W. C. Davis, Look Away!, 55–84. 5. W. H. King, No Pardons to Ask, Nor Apologies to Make, 2. 6. Entry for 10 March 1861, in Mays, “Sketches from the Journal of a Confederate Soldier,” 41. 7. Bonner, Mastering America, 233. 8. Glatthaar, General Lee’s Army, 19–20; C. E. Brooks, “The Social and Cultural Dynamics of Soldiering in Hood’s Texas Brigade.” 9. Ferdinand Boesel to unknown recipient, 17 July 1862, in Jordan-Bychkov, Brannum, and Hood, “Boesel Letters,” 465. 10. William Crow to brother and sister, 4 April 1861, in Crow, When I Think of Home, 8. 11. William H. Baxter to uncle, 17 April 1861, Thomas Baxter Papers, DU. 12. Janney, Burying the Dead but Not the Past, 206. 13. E. L. Jordan, Black Confederates and Afro-Yankees in Civil War Virginia, 5–23. 14. H. A. Wise, Seven Decades of the Union, 249–50 (quotation). On Wise’s role in secession, see N. D. Lankford, Cry Havoc!, 50–51. 15. Henry Constantine Wayne to Jeb Stuart, 12 April 1861, James Ewell Brown Stuart Papers, VHS. 16. Entry for 2 February 1861, in Apperson, Repairing the “March of Mars,” 34. 17. Henry K. Ramsey to Mary Thomas Tyler, 7 February 1861, Louthan Family Papers, VHS. 213 notes to pages 15–20 18. John Preston Sheffey to Miss Josie, 23 March 1861, in Sheffey, Soldier of Southwestern Virginia, 15. 19. Charles Trueheart to sister, 1 March 1861, in Trueheart and Trueheart, Rebel Brothers, 21. 20. Carter McKim Louthan to Ella Brown Louthan, 13 November 1860 (first quotation...


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