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275 CHAPTER 16 Are Mineral Resources in Africa Enriching Africans? TradingwiththeWorld Takalani Samuel Mashau and Nomusa Raphesu INTRODUCTION Geologically, Africa consists of Precambrian metamorphic and granitic rocks overlain in some areas by a thin cover of sedimentary rocks occupying broad shallow basins. Several cratonic areas (large immobile areas of ancient age) on the continent are separated by major mobile belts (zones that have undergone major tectonic activity).1 Some of the largest, and richest, mineral deposits in the world have been found in Africa. For much of the last half of the 20th Ccentury little mineral exploration and development work was done in Africa, except for southern Africa, even though there is significant potential for the discovery of new deposits. By the mid 1990’s modern exploration started to spread across much of Africa and many new deposits have been discovered and developed and some of the old major deposits are being renovated. The potential of Africa for the discovery and development of mineral resources is immense. Mineral occurrences are present throughout the continent in all countries. Unfortunately, none of the natural resources Africa is blessed with is under African control. Most of these occurrences will never be anything but isolated areas that contain small amounts of a mineral resource and will never be developed as a modern mine. The reason for that is because most of these occurrences do not contain enough volume of the mineral to make mining economic. However, the use of modern exploration methods in the region where these occurrences are known could result in the discovery of new, and previously unknown, deposits which could be of sufficient quantity and quality to allow for commercial mining.1,2 NATURAL RESOURCES IN AFRICA Almost all African states have got minerals that were supposed to be helping Africans. Following is the list of countries and their mineral resources: 276 CHAPTER 16 States Minerals Algeria Petroleum, Natural Gas, Iron Ore, Phosphates, Uranium, Lead, Zinc Angola Petroleum, Diamonds, Iron Ore, Phosphates, Copper, Feldspar, Gold, Bauxite, Uranium Benin Small Offshore Oil Deposits, Limestone, Marble, Timber Botswana Diamonds, Copper, Nickel, Salt, Soda Ash, Potash, Coal, Iron Ore, Silver Burkina Faso Manganese, Limestone, Marble, Small Deposits of Gold, Phosphates, Pumice, Salt Burundi Nickel, Uranium, Rare Earth Oxides, Peat, Cobalt, Copper, Platinum, Vanadium, Arable Land, Hydropower, Niobium, Tantalum, Gold, Tin, Tungsten, Kaolin, Limestone Cameroon Petroleum, Bauxite, Iron Ore, Timber, Hydropower Cape Verde Salt, Basalt Rock, Limestone, Kaolin, Fish, Clay, Gypsum Central African Republic Diamonds, Uranium, Timber, Gold, Oil, Hydropower Chad Petroleum, Uranium, Natron, Kaolin, Fish (Lake Chad), Gold, Limestone, Sand and Gravel, Salt Congo Petroleum, Timber, Potash, Lead, Zinc, Uranium, Copper, Phosphates, Gold, Magnesium, Natural Gas, Hydropower Cote d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Petroleum, Natural Gas, Diamonds, Manganese, Iron Ore, Cobalt, Bauxite, Copper, Gold, Nickel, Tantalum, Silica Sand, Clay, Cocoa, Beans, Coffee, Palm Oil, Hydropower Democratic Republic ofCongo Cobalt, Copper, Niobium, Tantalum, Petroleum, Industrial and Gem Diamonds, Gold, Silver, Zinc, Manganese, Tin, Uranium, Coal, Hydropower, Timber, Arable Land, Water Djibouti Geothermal, Gold, Clay, Granite, Limestone, Marble, Salt, Diatomite, Gypsum, Pumice, Petroleum Egypt Petroleum, Natural Gas, Iron Ore, Phosphates, Manganese, Limestone, Gypsum, Talc, Asbestos, Lead, Zinc Equatorial Guinea Petroleum, Natural Gas, Timber, Gold, Bauxite, Diamonds, Tantalum, Sand and Gravel, Clay Eritrea Potash, Gold, Zinc, Copper, Salt, Possibly Natural Gas and Oil, Fish Ethiopia Small Reserves of Gold, Platinum, Copper, Potash, Natural Gas, Hydropower Gabon Petroleum, Natural Gas, Diamonds, Niobium, Manganese, Uranium, Gold, Timber, Iron Ore, Hydropower Gambia Titanium (Rutile and Ilmenite), Tin, Zircon, Silva Sand, Clay, Petroleum 277 ARE MINERAL RESOURCES IN AFRICA ENRICHING AFRICANS? States Minerals Ghana Gold, Timber, Industrial Diamonds, Bauxite, Manganese, Fish, Rubber, Hydropower, Petroleum, Silver, Salt, Limestone Guinea Bauxite, Iron Ore, Diamonds, Gold, Uranium, Hydropower, Fish, Salt Guinea-Bissau Timber, Phosphates, Bauxite, Clay, Granite, Limestone, Petroleum Kenya Limestone, Soda Ash, Salt, Gemstones, Fluorspar, Zinc, Diatomite, Gypsum, Wildlife, Hydropower Lesotho Water, Agricultural and Grazing Land, Diamonds, Sand, Clay, Building Stone Liberia Iron Ore, Timber, Diamonds, Gold, Hydropower; Libya: Petroleum, Natural Gas, Gypsum Madagascar Graphite, Chromites, Coal, Bauxite, Salt, Quartz, Tar Sands, Semiprecious Stones, Mica, Fish, Hydropower Malawi Limestone, Arable Land, Hydropower, Uranium, Coal, Bauxite Mali Gold, Phosphates, Kaolin, Salt, Limestone, Uranium, Gypsum, Granite, Hydropower, Bauxite, Iron Ore, Manganese, Tin, Copper Mauritania Iron Ore, Gypsum, Copper, Phosphate, Diamonds, Gold, Oil Mauritius Arable Land Morocco Phosphates, Iron Ore, Manganese, Lead, Zinc, Fish, Salt Mozambique Coal, Titanium, Natural Gas, Hydropower, Tantalum, Graphite Namibia Diamonds, Copper, Uranium, Gold, Silver, Lead, Tin, Lithium, Cadmium, Tungsten, Zinc, Salt, Hydropower, Fish, Coal, Oil, Iron Ore Niger Uranium, Coal...


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