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167 NOTES Introduction 1. Cited in Marshall Berman, All That Is Solid Melts into Air: The Experience of Modernity (New York, 1982), 320. 2. Zellner’s remarks introduce the music and words of “We Shall Not Be Moved” in Guy and Candie Carawan and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee’s collection We Shall Overcome!: Songs of the Southern Freedom Movement (New York, 1963), 21. 3. Marvin Carlson, Performance: A Critical Introduction (London, 1996), 4–5. 4. Erving Goffman, The Presentation of the Self in Everyday Life (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1959), 15–16. 5. Schechner’s list appears in Richard Schechner, Performance Studies: An Introduction (London, 2002), 25. I am heavily indebted to Schechner’s discussion of the problem of defining “performance.” 6. Mary Ryan, Civic Wars: Democracy and Public Life in the American City during the Nineteenth Century (Berkeley, 1997), 15. 7. “Money Is an Unnecessary Evil,” in the Digger Archives, San Francisco Diggers page at ⬍http://www.diggers.org/diggers.htm⬎. 8. In some cases, government initiatives against socially oriented artistic expression predated the Cold War. As early as 1938, the House Committee on Un-American Activities (whose acronym was later changed to HUAC), chaired by Congressman Martin Dies, instituted investigations that led to the abolition of the Federal Theatre Project and other New Deal arts programs. See Michael Denning, The Cultural Front: The Laboring of American Culture in the Twentieth Century (London, 1997), 45, 80. 9. Signals through the Flames, directed by Sheldon Rochlin and Maxine Harris, Mystic Fire Video, 1983. 10. Serge Guilbaut, How New York Stole the Idea of Modern Art: Abstract Expressionism, Freedom, and the Cold War (Chicago, 1983), 200–201. 168 Notes to Pages 8–14 11. Adele Heller and Lois Rudnick, eds., 1915, The Cultural Moment: The New Politics, the New Woman, the New Psychology, the New Art, and the New Theatre in America (New Brunswick, N.J., 1991); see introduction, especially 6–11; also in the same volume see Heller’s essay on “The New Theatre,” 217–31, which mentions the Living Theatre as one of a number of groups who benefited from the Provincetown Players’ legacy, as well as Eugene Leach, “The Radicals of The Masses,” 33–35, which discusses the Paterson Strike Pageant. The Paterson Strike Pageant is discussed in greater detail in Linda Nochlin, “The Paterson Strike Pageant of 1913,” Art in America (May/June, 1974), 64–68. Nochlin explicitly notes the pageant’s “affinities with some of the larger participatory Happenings of the 1960s.” 12. Denning, Cultural Front, 365–75. Wendy Smith, Real Life Drama: The Group Theatre and America, 1931–1940 (New York, 1990), provides a comprehensive chronicle of the Group Theatre’s career. Smith’s account illustrates that the Group Theatre engaged in self-consciously widening its audience to include a working class previously excluded by Broadway’s high ticket prices—a trend toward democratizing culture that figures prominently among the groups featured here, especially the Living Theatre, the Art Workers Coalition, and the Guerrilla Art Action Group. 13. The Popular Front was a broad-based alliance between the Communist Party, organized labor, and sympathetic liberals during the 1930s. For the definitive account of its cultural side, see Denning, Cultural Front, xiii–xx, 367–69, 403–22, 490 n. 67; Barbara Melosh, Engendering Culture: Manhood and Womanhood in New Deal Public Art and Theater (Washington, D.C., 1991) 1–12, 118–21. Melosh chronicles the ascendancy of social commentary of New Deal art and theater, and contends that the New Deal proved unique among “liberal American reform movements” because it lacked a resurgence of feminism. Melosh points out that portrayals of men and women in thirties art and theater reflected the leftist sympathies of the era yet tended to reinforce traditional gender roles and expectations. 14. The Beats were part of an undercurrent of cultural protest during the fifties that included such popular films as The Wild One, The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit, and Rebel Without a Cause. Such protest fits the model of apolitical cultural rebellion which the Living Theatre pursued as well. Like the Beats, the Living Theatre limited its rebellion to experiments with artistic form during the fifties. Only with its production of The Brig (1963) did the Living Theatre begin to infuse its theatrical offerings with overtly political subject matter. 15. Bradford Martin, “The Living Theatre in America: 1951–1969,” senior essay, History Department, Yale University, 1988, 18–24. 16. Lucy R. Lippard...

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Additional Information

ISBN
9781613761250
Related ISBN
9781558494497
MARC Record
OCLC
794701600
Pages
224
Launched on MUSE
2012-01-01
Language
English
Open Access
No
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