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The Village and the Class War

Anti-Kulak Campaign in Estonia

Anu Mai Koll

Publication Year: 2012

Published by: Central European University Press


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p. C-C

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-iv

Table of Contents

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pp. v-viii

List of Tables and Graphs

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pp. ix-x

List of Photographs

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pp. xi-xii

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pp. 1-2

The study of the collectivisation process in Estonia has led to new discoveries and a new state of the art for me as a traditional agrarian historian. The nature of the Soviet Union under Stalin and, in particular, the atrocities committed in the course of the collectivisation of agriculture have, in last two decades, been the subject of considerable new ...

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Chapter 1 The Land Question in Estonia

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pp. 3-36

Estonia is situated on the south-eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. Baltic German barons have dominated most of its history as rulers of the indigenous enserfed peasantry from the time of the eastern crusades in the twelfth century on. Until the late nineteenth century, local rule was feudal in character; this did not end completely until the aristocracy...

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Chapter 2 Soviet Repression as a Special Case of State Violence

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pp. 37-70

Mass violence conducted by states has been a plague of the twentieth century. Attempts to explain it have generated a large number of studies—Holocaust studies most prominently—but also studies of communist atrocities. In the case of communist countries, and the Soviet Union in particular, there has been a continuing discussion...

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Chapter 3The Anti-kulak Campaign

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pp. 71-112

On 23 March 1948, the village soviet in the hamlet Metsküla* met to uncover kulaks. The village is situated at a crossroads, and the landscape is undulating and fertile. At the point where roads crossed, stood a large barn housing a creamery, where milk from the neighbouring farms was collected, with living quarters at one end. The village soviet ...

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Chapter 4 Inventing Kulaks

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pp. 113-158

Leida B1 was included on the list of kulaks already in the first round as kulaks were listed in September 1947. She was the sole adult of her household, a woman 34 years of age with two sons, ages 5 and 7. The farm was small, 24 hectares in all; it was not one of the older farms. Leida B called herself a settler; in her appeal against the kulak declaration...

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Chapter 5 Participation at the Local Level

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pp. 159-200

The anti-kulak campaign was in its nature specifically characteristic of Soviet society and must be understood with a reference to the Marxist theory of class struggle. Local people receiving orders to single out kulak families were supposed to apply class criteria and class analysis to the task. While this would be a difficult task for a trained social...

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Chapter 6 Epilogue of March 1949

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pp. 201-230

The deportations sent a shock wave through society on many levels. On one hand, an intentional message was being sent. This violent act meant that there had been enough talk; the time for discussions was ended. It also sent the signal that further resistance would not be tolerated. The dependence of the deportation squads on the kulak lists ...

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Chapter 7 The Grammar of Terror

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pp. 231-260

This local study tells the story of how the so-called kulaks were persecuted in a modestly prosperous agricultural community in Estonia after the war. The documents left by decision makers too often form the picture we get of a historical process. Where there is no freedom of expression this is practically the only accessible point of view. It is the ...

Appendix I

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pp. 261-267

Appendix II

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pp. 268-272


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pp. 273-280


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pp. 281-BC

E-ISBN-13: 9786155225512
Print-ISBN-13: 9786155225147

Publication Year: 2012


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