In this Book

  • Pioneer Science and the Great Plagues: How Microbes, War, and Public Health Shaped Animal Health
  • by Norman F. Cheville
  • 2021
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  • Published by: Purdue University Press
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summary
Pioneer Science and the Great Plagues covers the century when infectious plagues—anthrax, tuberculosis, tetanus, plague, smallpox, and polio—were conquered, and details the important role that veterinary scientists played. The narrative is driven by astonishing events that centered on animal disease: the influenza pandemic of 1872, discovery of the causes of anthrax and tuberculosis in the 1880s, conquest of Texas cattle fever and then yellow fever, German anthrax attacks on the United States during World War I, the tuberculin war of 1931, Japanese biological warfare in the 1940s, and today’s bioterror dangers. Veterinary science in the rural Midwest arose from agriculture, but in urban Philadelphia it came from medicine; similar differences occurred in Canada between Toronto and Montreal. As land-grant colleges were established after the American Civil War, individual states followed divergent pathways in supporting veterinary science. Some employed a trade school curriculum that taught agriculturalists to empirically treat animal diseases and others emphasized a curriculum tied to science. This pattern continued for a century, but today some institutions have moved back to the trade school philosophy. Avoiding lessons of the 1910 Flexner Report on medical education reform, university-associated veterinary schools are being approved that do not have control of their own veterinary hospitals, diagnostic laboratories, and research institutes—components that are critical for training students in science. Underlying this change were twin idiosyncrasies of culture—disbelief in science and distrust of government—that spawned scientology, creationism, anti-vaccination movements, and other anti-science scams. As new infectious plagues continue to arise, Pioneer Science and the Great Plagues details the strategies we learned defeating plagues from 1860 to 1960—and the essential role veterinary science played. To defeat the plagues of today it is essential we avoid the digital cocoon of disbelief in science and cultural stasis now threatening progress.

Table of Contents

  1. Title Page, Copyright
  2. pp. i-iv
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  1. Contents
  2. pp. v-vi
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  1. Preface
  2. pp. vii-viii
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  1. Acknowledgments
  2. pp. ix-x
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  1. PART I. Prologue: A Science Heritage
  2. pp. 1-2
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  1. 1. The Veterinary Schools of Europe
  2. pp. 3-9
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  1. 2. Edward Jenner: Zoologist, Physician, Pioneer
  2. pp. 9-13
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  1. 3. William Dick: From Farrier to Veterinarian in Edinburgh
  2. pp. 13-15
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  1. 4. The Science Giants of 1860: Pasteur, Virchow, and Darwin
  2. pp. 15-19
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  1. 5. Robert Koch: Game Change
  2. pp. 19-22
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  1. PART II. Farrier to Veterinarian: Science in the Heartland
  2. pp. 23-24
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  1. 6. Emigrants West: Ohio Country, Iowa Territory, and Tejas
  2. pp. 24-32
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  1. 7. The Canadian Midwest: Divergence of Lower and Upper Canada
  2. pp. 32-37
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  1. 8. Pioneers in the Midwest Frontier: Physicians in Veterinary Practice
  2. pp. 37-42
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  1. 9. New Plagues, Civil War, and the United States Department of Agriculture
  2. pp. 42-50
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  1. 10. Agriculture and Veterinary Science in the Midwest
  2. pp. 50-58
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  1. PART III. Pioneering Veterinary Education: 1860-1900
  2. pp. 59-60
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  1. 11. Urban East Versus Rural West: Montreal and New York Diss Toronto and Iowa
  2. pp. 60-66
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  1. 12. The Pioneer State Colleges: Iowa, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Cornell
  2. pp. 66-78
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  1. 13. Plagues and the Bureau of Animal Industry
  2. pp. 78-85
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  1. 14. Bacteriology in the Heartland
  2. pp. 85-92
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  1. 15. The 1890s: Horse Markets and Enrollments Drop
  2. pp. 92-102
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  1. PART IV. Livestock and Veterinarians Go West: 1900-1920
  2. pp. 103-105
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  1. 16. Private Veterinary Schools: Chicago, Kansas City, and Indianapolis
  2. pp. 105-108
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  1. 17. Public Veterinary Schools: The Second-Generation Pioneers
  2. pp. 108-117
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  1. 18. The Bureau of Animal Industry and Hog Cholera
  2. pp. 117-124
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  1. 19. Veterinary Education, Charles Stange, and the Flexner Report
  2. pp. 124-130
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  1. 20. World War I: Biowarfare, Prejudice, and the U.S. Army Veterinary Corps
  2. pp. 130-138
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  1. PART V. Ascendance: The Agricultural Depressions of 1920-1940
  2. pp. 139-140
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  1. 21. Agricultural Depression Amidst a National Boom: The 1920s
  2. pp. 140-147
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  1. 22. 1929: Prelude to Bad Times
  2. pp. 147-152
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  1. 23. Public Health and Distrust of Government: The Tuberculin War
  2. pp. 152-158
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  1. 24. A Depression Paradox: Culture and Science
  2. pp. 158-161
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  1. 25. New Deal: Discoveries in Infectious Disease
  2. pp. 161-166
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  1. PART VI. Duty Required: World War II and the Science Boom
  2. pp. 167-168
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  1. 26. War: The Home Front
  2. pp. 168-176
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  1. 27. Veterinary Corps and Bioterror
  2. pp. 176-181
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  1. 28. Postwar Investigations of Enemy Biological Warfare
  2. pp. 181-187
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  1. 29. Prelude to the Science Revolution
  2. pp. 187-196
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  1. 30. The Atomic Age
  2. pp. 196-204
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  1. PART VII. Transformation: Veterinary Science Beyond 1960
  2. pp. 205-206
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  1. 31. New Programs, New Laboratories: Malaria, Polio, and New Viruses
  2. pp. 207-210
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  1. 32. Comparative Medicine: Models for Leukemia
  2. pp. 210-216
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  1. 33. Grassroots Mandates: The National Research Centers for Livestock Diseases
  2. pp. 216-223
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  1. 34. Old Plagues in the Wild: The National Wildlife Centers
  2. pp. 223-232
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  1. 35. New Plagues: Scrapie, Mad Cow Disease, and the Prion
  2. pp. 232-236
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  1. PART VIII. Epilogue: New Age — Same Risks, New Game
  2. pp. 237-239
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  1. 36. The Farm Crises of 1980-1995: Distrust of Science
  2. pp. 239-242
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  1. 37. The Gender Shift
  2. pp. 242-247
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  1. 38. Biopolitics
  2. pp. 247-255
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  1. 39. Bioterror, Anthrax, and the National Animal Health Networks
  2. pp. 255-264
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  1. 40. Anti-Science Scams and Keys to Progress
  2. pp. 264-272
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  1. Appendix I: Transportation Pathways Spread Disease
  2. pp. 273-274
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  1. Appendix II: North American Degree-Granting Veterinary Schools
  2. pp. 275-278
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  1. Appendix III: Six New Land Grant Veterinary Colleges, 1900-1920
  2. pp. 279-280
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  1. Appendix IV: Graduates in Rural and Urban Veterinary Schools
  2. pp. 281-282
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  1. Appendix V: Military Training for Veterinarians in World War II
  2. pp. 283-284
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  1. Appendix VI: Animal Models of Cancer
  2. pp. 285-286
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  1. Appendix VII: Shift in Gender in Veterinary Students
  2. pp. 287-290
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  1. Notes
  2. pp. 291-330
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  1. Index
  2. pp. 331-358
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  1. About the Author
  2. pp. 359-360
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Additional Information

ISBN
9781612497020
Related ISBN(s)
9781612496566
MARC Record
OCLC
1240236794
Pages
330
Launched on MUSE
2021-05-29
Language
English
Open Access
Yes
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