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Essays on the Modern Japanese Church (Gendai Nihon kyokai shiron), published in 1906, was the first Japanese-language history of Christianity in Meiji Japan. Yamaji Aizan’s firsthand account describes the reintroduction of Christianity to Japan—its development, rapid expansion, and decline—and its place in the social, political, and intellectual life of the Meiji period. Yamaji’s overall argument is that Christianity played a crucial role in shaping the growth and development of modern Japan.
Yamaji was a strong opponent of the government-sponsored “emperor-system ideology,” and through his historical writing he tried to show how Japan had a tradition of tolerance and openness at a time when government-sponsored intellectuals were arguing for greater conformity and submissiveness to the state on the basis of Japanese “national character.”
Essays is important not only in terms of religious history but also because it highlights broad trends in the history of Meiji Japan. Introductory chapters explore the significance of the work in terms of the life and thought of its author and its influence on subsequent interpretations of Meiji Christianity.

Table of Contents

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  1. Cover
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  1. Half Title Page
  2. p. i
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  1. Series Page
  2. p. ii
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  1. Title Page
  2. p. iii
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  1. Copyright
  2. p. iv
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  1. Contents
  2. pp. v-vi
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  1. Preface
  2. pp. vii-viii
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  1. Introductory Essays
  2. pp. 1-2
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  1. Yamaji Aizan And Essays On The History Of The Modern Japanese Church
  2. Graham Squires
  3. pp. 3-24
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  1. Essays And Meiji Protestant Christian History
  2. A. Hamish Ion
  3. pp. 25-42
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  1. Essays on the History of the Modern Japanese Church
  2. pp. 43-44
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  1. 1. Introduction
  2. pp. 45-46
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  1. 2. The Awakening Of The Japanese People I
  2. pp. 47-51
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  1. 3. The Awakening Of The Japanese People II
  2. pp. 52-61
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  1. 4. The Appeasement Policy Of The Restoration Government
  2. pp. 62-66
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  1. 5. A Spiritual Revolution Comes From The Dark Side Of The Age
  2. pp. 67-69
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  1. 6. On Nakamura Masanao
  2. pp. 70-74
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  1. 7. Yasui Sokken’s An Exposition Of Error I
  2. pp. 75-76
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  1. 8. Yasui Sokken’s An Exposition Of Error II
  2. pp. 77-79
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  1. 9. Yasui Sokken’s An Exposition Of Error III
  2. pp. 80-86
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  1. 10. Yasui Sokken’s View Of The Universe
  2. pp. 87-89
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  1. 11. On Niijima Jō
  2. pp. 90-94
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  1. 12. Contrasting Social Phenomena
  2. pp. 95-96
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  1. 13. The Pledge Of Mount Hanaoka
  2. pp. 97-102
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  1. 14. The First Reaction Against Westernization—fukuzawa Yukichi
  2. pp. 103-106
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  1. 15. Four Kinds Of Thought And The Division Of Talent
  2. pp. 107-109
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  1. 16. The French Faction—Political Rights
  2. pp. 110-111
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  1. 17. The English Faction—empiricism
  2. pp. 112-115
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  1. 18. The Conservative Reaction And The Policy Of The Government
  2. pp. 116-120
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  1. 19. The Results Of The Conservative Policy
  2. pp. 121-122
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  1. 20. The Attitude Of Christians
  2. pp. 123-124
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  1. 21. The University Movement And The Theory Of Evolution And Agnosticism
  2. pp. 125-129
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  1. 22. Tokyo University Against The Christian Church
  2. pp. 130-133
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  1. 23. The Rise Of Westernism
  2. pp. 134-136
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  1. 24. The Kokumin No Tomo And Jogaku Zasshi
  2. pp. 137-138
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  1. 25. The Movement At Dōshisha College
  2. pp. 139-142
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  1. 26. Weaknesses In The Work Of Niijima Jo
  2. pp. 143-144
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  1. 27. Theological Disputes I
  2. pp. 145-149
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  1. 28. Theological Disputes II
  2. pp. 150-153
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  1. 29. The Attitude Of The Church Toward The New Theology—unfairness
  2. pp. 154-155
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  1. 30. The Conservative Reaction I
  2. pp. 156-158
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  1. 31. The Conservative Reaction II
  2. pp. 159-164
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  1. 32. Inoue Tetsujirō And The Christian Church
  2. pp. 165-170
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  1. 33. The Victory Of The So-called Statist Education
  2. pp. 171-172
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  1. 34. The Stagnation Of The Church
  2. pp. 173-174
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  1. 35. The Rise Of The Business World And Christianity
  2. pp. 175-176
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  1. 36. Trends In The Churches Overseas And The Influence On The Japanese Church
  2. pp. 177-178
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  1. 37. We Should Not Be Pessimistic About The Future Of The Church
  2. pp. 179-185
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  1. 38. The Christian Church Of The Future
  2. pp. 186-187
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  1. Bibliography
  2. pp. 189-194
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  1. Index
  2. pp. 195-196
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  1. About the Authors
  2. p. 197
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