In this Book

  • When Sorry Isn't Enough: The Controversy Over Apologies and Reparations for Human Injustice
  • Book
  • Roy L. Brooks
  • 1999
  • Published by: NYU Press
summary

Leading scholars, activists, and political leaders on being victim's of the world's worst atrocities

"How much compensation ought to be paid to a woman who was raped 7,500 times? What would the members of the Commission want for their daughters if their daughters had been raped even once?"—Karen Parker, speaking before the U.N. Commission on Human Rights

Seemingly every week, a new question arises relative to the current worldwide ferment over human injustices. Why does the U.S. offer $20,000 atonement money to Japanese Americans relocated to concentration camps during World War II, while not even apologizing to African Americans for 250 years of human bondage and another century of institutionalized discrimination? How can the U.S. and Canada best grapple with the genocidal campaigns against Native Americans on which their countries were founded? How should Japan make amends to Korean "comfort women" sexually enslaved during World War II? Why does South Africa deem it necessary to grant amnesty to whites who tortured and murdered blacks under apartheid? Is Germany's highly praised redress program, which has paid billions of dollars to Jews worldwide, a success, and, as such, an example for others?More generally, is compensation for a historical wrong dangerous "blood money" that allows a nation to wash its hands forever of its responsibility to those it has injured?

A rich collection of essays from leading scholars, pundits, activists, and political leaders the world over, many written expressly for this volume, When Sorry Isn't Enough also includes the voices of the victims of some of the world's worst atrocities, thereby providing a panoramic perspective on an international controversy often marked more by heat than reason.

Table of Contents

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  1. Cover
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  1. Half-Title Page, Series Titles, Title Page, Copyright, Dedication
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  1. Contents
  2. pp. ix-xviii
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  1. Preface
  2. pp. xix-xx
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  1. Part 1: Introduction
  1. Chapter 1: The Age of Apology
  2. pp. 1-11
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  1. Suggested Readings
  2. p. 12
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  1. Part 2: Nazi Persecution
  1. Introduction
  1. Chapter 2: A Reparations Success Story?
  2. pp. 13-20
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  1. The Scope of Persecution
  1. Chapter 3: The German Third Reich and Its Victims
  2. pp. 21-30
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  1. Holocaust Narratives
  1. Chapter 4: Memories of My Childhood in the Holocaust
  2. pp. 31-42
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  1. Chapter 5: The Human "Guinea Pigs" of Ravensbrück
  2. pp. 43-46
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  1. Chapter 6: Stranger in Exile
  2. pp. 47-48
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  1. The National Security Defense
  1. Chapter 7: Putative National Security Defense
  2. pp. 49-58
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  1. German Reparations
  1. Chapter 8: German Compensation for National Socialist Crimes
  2. pp. 59-67
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  1. Chapter 9: Romani Victims of the Holocaust and Swiss Complicity
  2. pp. 68-76
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  1. Chapter 10: German Reparations
  2. pp. 77-80
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  1. Suggested Readings
  2. pp. 81-82
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  1. Part 3: Comfort Women
  1. Introduction
  1. Chapter 11: What Form Redress?
  2. pp. 83-92
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  1. The Comfort Women System
  1. Chapter 12: The Jugun Ianfu System
  2. pp. 93-100
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  1. Chapter 13: Comfort Women Narratives
  2. pp. 101-103
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  1. Chapter 14: The Nanking Massacre
  2. pp. 104-108
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  1. Chapter 15: Japan's Official Responses to Nanking
  2. pp. 109-110
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  1. The Redress Movement
  1. Chapter 16: The Comfort Women Redress Movement
  2. pp. 111-125
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  1. Chapter 17: Japan's Official Responses to Reparations
  2. pp. 126-132
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  1. A Legal Analysis of Reparations
  1. Chapter 18: Japan's Settlement of the Post-World War II Reparations and Claims
  2. pp. 133-140
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  1. Chapter 19: Reparations
  2. pp. 141-148
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  1. An American Response
  1. Chapter 20: Lipinski Resolution
  2. pp. 149-150
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  1. Suggested Readings
  2. pp. 151-152
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  1. Part 4: Japanese Americans
  1. Introduction
  1. Chapter 21: Japanese American Redress and the American Political Process
  2. pp. 153-162
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  1. The Internment Experience
  1. Chapter 22:The Internment of Americans of Japanese Ancestry
  2. pp. 163-168
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  1. Chapter 23: Executive Order 9066
  2. pp. 169-170
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  1. Chapter 24: Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians
  2. pp. 171-176
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  1. Chapter 25: Japanese American Narratives
  2. pp. 177-180
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  1. The Redress Movement
  1. Chapter 26: Relocation, Redress, and the Report
  2. pp. 181-186
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  1. Forms of Redress
  1. Chapter 27: Redress Achieved, 1983-1990
  2. pp. 187-189
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  1. Chapter 28: Institutions and Interest Groups
  2. pp. 190-200
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  1. Chapter 29: Proclamation 4417
  2. pp. 201-202
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  1. Chapter 30: Response to Criticisms of Monetary Redress
  2. pp. 203-204
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  1. Chapter 31: Testimony of Representative Norman Y. Mineta
  2. p. 205
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  1. Chapter 32: German Americans, Italian Americans, and the Constitutionality of Reparations
  2. pp. 206-216
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  1. Chapter 33: The Case of the Japanese Peruvians
  2. pp. 217-221
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  1. Chapter 34: Letters from John J. McCloy and Karl R. Bendetsen
  2. pp. 222-227
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  1. Suggested Readings
  2. p. 228
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  1. Part 5: Native Americans
  1. Introduction
  1. Chapter 35: Wild Redress?
  2. pp. 229-238
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  1. The Native American Experience
  1. Chapter 36: Native American Reparations
  2. pp. 239-248
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  1. Native American Narratives
  1. Chapter 37: The Killing of Big Snake, a Ponca Chief, October 31, 1879
  2. pp. 249-251
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  1. Chapter 38: The Massacre at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, December 29, 1890
  2. pp. 252-253
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  1. Chapter 39: How the Indians Are Victimized by Government Agents and Soldiers
  2. pp. 254-256
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  1. Chapter 40: Forced Removal of the Winnebago Indians, Nebraska, October 3, 1865
  2. pp. 257-258
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  1. The Redress Movement: Land Claim Litigation
  1. Chapter 41: Indian Claims for Reparations, Compensation, and Restitution in the United States Legal System
  2. pp. 259-270
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  1. The Redress Movement: Land Claim Legislation
  1. Chapter 42: The True Nature of Congress's Power over Indian Claims
  2. pp. 271-280
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  1. Repatriation of Religious and Cultural Artifacts
  1. Chapter 43: Repatriation Must Heal Old Wounds
  2. pp. 281-288
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  1. Wealth, Redistribution, and Sovereignty
  1. Chapter 44: Office of the Governor, Pete Wilson, State of California, Press Release
  2. pp. 289-293
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  1. Chapter 45: Statement of the Honorable Anthony R. Pico, Chairman, Viejas Band of Kumeyaay Indians, Press Conference
  2. pp. 294-297
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  1. Chapter 46: The Distribution of Wealth, Sovereignty, and Culture through Indian Gaming
  2. pp. 298-303
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  1. Suggested Readings
  2. p. 304
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  1. Part 6: Slavery
  1. Introduction
  1. Chapter 47: Not Even an Apology?
  2. pp. 305-314
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  1. The Slave and the Free Black Experience
  1. Chapter 48: The Legal Status of African Americans during the Colonial Period
  2. pp. 315-324
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  1. Chapter 49: African Americans under the Antebellum Constitution
  2. pp. 325-326
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  1. Chapter 50: Slave Narratives
  2. pp. 327-332
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  1. Chapter 51: Remembering Slavery
  2. pp. 333-335
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  1. Chapter 52: Life as a Free Black
  2. pp. 336-338
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  1. The Redress Movement
  1. Chapter 53: The Growing Movement for Reparations
  2. pp. 339-344
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  1. Forms of Redress: Apology
  1. Chapter 54: Why the North and South Should Have Apologized
  2. pp. 345-349
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  1. Chapter 55: Defense of Congressional Resolution Apologizing for Slavery
  2. pp. 350-351
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  1. Chapter 56: Clinton Opposes Slavery Apology
  2. p. 352
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  1. Chapter 57: Ask Camille
  2. pp. 353-354
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  1. Chapter 58: The Atlantic Slave Trade
  2. pp. 355-357
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  1. Chapter 59: They Didn't March to Free the Slaves
  2. pp. 358-359
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  1. Chapter 60: Lincoln Apologizes
  2. pp. 360-362
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  1. Forms of Redress: Reparations
  1. Chapter 61: Special Field Order No. 15
  2. pp. 365-366
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  1. Chapter 62: The Commission to Study Reparations Proposals
  2. pp. 367-369
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  1. Chapter 63: Clinton and Conservatives Oppose Slavery Reparations
  2. pp. 370-371
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  1. Chapter 64: Collective Rehabilitation
  2. pp. 372-373
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  1. Chapter 65: The Constitutionality of Black Reparations
  2. pp. 374-389
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  1. Suggested Readings
  2. p. 390
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  1. Part 7: Jim Crow
  1. Introduction
  1. Chapter 66: Redress for Racism?
  2. pp. 391-398
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  1. The Jim Crow Experience
  1. Chapter 67: The Triumph of White Supremacy
  2. pp. 399-404
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  1. Jim Crow Narratives
  1. Chapter 68: Jim Crow Narratives
  2. pp. 405-410
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  1. Forms of Redress
  1. Chapter 69: The United States Has Already Apologized for Racial Discrimination
  2. pp. 411-416
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  1. Chapter 70: The Long-Overdue Reparations for African Americans
  2. pp. 417-421
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  1. Chapter 71: Reparations
  2. pp. 422-426
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  1. Chapter 72: Repatriation as Reparations for Slavery and Jim-Crowism
  2. pp. 427-434
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  1. Chapter 73: Rosewood
  2. pp. 435-437
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  1. Suggested Readings
  2. p. 438
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  1. Part 8: South Africa
  1. Introduction
  1. Chapter 74: What Price Reconciliation?
  2. pp. 439-448
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  1. The Apartheid Experience
  1. Chapter 75: African National Congress Statement to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission
  2. pp. 449-454
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  1. Apartheid Narratives
  1. Chapter 76: Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Amnesty Hearing
  2. pp. 455-460
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  1. Chapter 77: Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Amnesty Hearing
  2. pp. 461-466
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  1. The Redress Movement
  1. Chapter 78: Alternatives and Adjuncts to Criminal Prosecutions
  2. pp. 467-474
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  1. Forms of Redress
  1. Chapter 79: Summary of Anti-Amnesty Case
  2. pp. 475-478
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  1. Chapter 80: Justice after Apartheid?
  2. pp. 479-486
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  1. Chapter 81: Will the Amnesty Process Foster Reconciliation among South Africans?
  2. pp. 487-491
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  1. Chapter 82: Healing Racial Wounds?
  2. pp. 492-500
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  1. Chapter 83: Introductory Notes to the Presentation of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's Proposed Reparation and Rehabilitation Policies
  2. pp. 501-504
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  1. Chapter 84: Truth and Reconciliation Commission Hearing Testimony of Former President F. W. de Klerk
  2. p. 505
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  1. Chapter 85: Affirmative Action as Reparation for Past Employment Discrimination in South Africa
  2. pp. 506-509
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  1. Suggested Readings
  2. p. 510
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  1. Appendix
  2. pp. 511-514
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  1. Contributors
  2. pp. 515-520
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  1. Permissions
  2. pp. 521-522
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  1. Index
  2. pp. 523-535
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  1. About the Editor
  2. p. 536
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