Originally published in 1962. The rise of "metaphoric" criticism is a reaction against a previous critical preoccupation with psychology and time. Milton spatialized time, thoroughly mastering a metaphoric technique. Professor Cope, after discussing the influences that shaped Milton's aesthetic, systematically examines the structural components of Paradise Lost—light, darkness, and vertical movement—and finds that they imitate, metaphorically, the overall theme of the epic. To test further the implications of his hypothesis, Cope turns to two unsettled points in Miltonic exegesis: Milton's muse and the dialogue in Heaven.