In this Book

summary
Friedenberg's work provides the first comprehensive study of the use of seals by Jews from the 12th to the 16th century and their role in transforming Europe from a barter economy to a money economy. Structuring his analysis by geographic regions, Friedenberg examines the physical nature of the seals and discusses the symbols and legends they employ. He examines their relation to similar Christian seals, their legal validity and use, and their prevalence in certain areas at certain times. In all, 177 seals are catalogued. Where the impressions are appended to documents, the document is also reviewed. Whenever possible, the seals are illustrated, as are the most significant documents, along with other seals, medals, coins, letters and paintings which serve to illuminate the discussion of a seal. The result is the definitive catalog of all known Jewish seals of the period.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
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  1. Title Page
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  1. Copyright
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  1. Dedication
  2. pp. 5-6
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  1. Contents
  2. pp. 7-12
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  1. Illustrations
  2. pp. 13-16
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  1. Acknowledgments
  2. pp. 17-19
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  1. System of Transliteration
  2. pp. 20-27
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  1. ENGLAND
  2. pp. 43-44
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  1. Personal Seals
  2. pp. 45-46
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  1. 2. Seal of Mildegode the Jew
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  1. 3. Seal of Bonefay Son of Barton
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  1. 4. Seal of Yosi Son of Bonefay
  2. pp. 49-50
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  1. 5. Seal of Aaron
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  1. Official Seals
  2. pp. 52-53
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  1. Apocrypha and Falsely Dated Medieval Seals
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  1. 8. Seal of Nathan Son of Frederic
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  1. 9. Seal of Purnel Son of Matthias
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  1. The Legal Validity of the Jewish Seal in England
  2. pp. 56-58
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  1. FRANCE
  2. pp. 59-60
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  1. Personal Seals
  2. pp. 61-62
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  1. 11. Seal of Tobiah Son of Master Chiyya
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  1. 12. Seal of Meyer Son of Judah
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  1. 13. Seal of Chalafta Son of David
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  1. 14. Seal of Gedaliah Son of Jekuthiel
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  1. 15. Seal of Judah Son of Reuben Chasdai
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  1. 16. Seal of Jechiel Son of Menachem Chaim
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  1. 17. Seal of Solomon Son of Gedaliah
  2. pp. 68-69
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  1. 18. Seal of Isaac Judah Son of Judah Lobel
  2. p. 70
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  1. 19. Seal of Kalonymos Son of Todros/Moumet of Narbonne
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  1. 20. Seal of Todros Son of Kalonymos/Toros Momet
  2. pp. 72-74
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  1. 21. Seal of David Son of Samuel/Mielet of the Portal
  2. pp. 77-78
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  1. 22. Seal of Solomon Vidal of the Portal
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  1. 23. Seal of Dulcie of the Portali
  2. pp. 80-82
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  1. 24. Seal of Solomon Son of Joshua/Salamon of the Rampart
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  1. 25. Seal of Masip Crechet
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  1. 26. Seal of Tobi[ah] Son of Isaac/Cresques
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  1. 27. Seal of Kalonymos Son of Solomon/Crescas of Masela
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  1. 28. Seal of Josce: The Jew
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  1. 29. Seal of Isaac Son of Jacob
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  1. 30. Seal of Menesier the Jew of Dôle
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  1. 31. Seal of Moiroudi the Jew
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  1. 32. Seal of Beniet (or Beniot)
  2. p. 90
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  1. 33. Seal of Jacob Son of Judah, Called Jacob of Nantes
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  1. 34. Seal of Aaron Son of David, Called Haranc of Segré
  2. p. 91
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  1. Official Seals To Confirm Jewish Contracts
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  1. 36. Counterseal of Debt of the Jews of Paris
  2. pp. 95-96
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  1. 37. Seal of Debt of the Jews of Pontoise
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  1. 38. Seal of Debt of the Jews of Provins
  2. pp. 98-100
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  1. 39. Seal of the Jews
  2. p. 101
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  1. Conclusions Regarding Jewish State Seals
  2. pp. 102-103
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  1. Questionable Seals and Miscellanea
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  1. 41. Seal of [the Jews of] Avignon
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  1. 42. Seal of Bartoli of Alvenno the Jew
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  1. 43. Seal of Gervais the Jew
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  1. 44. Seal of Aster [or Asterius]
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  1. 45. Seal of Astruc of Canoniga
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  1. 46. Seal of Simon Judas of Trote
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  1. 47. Seal and Counterseal of the Paraige of Jewry [of Metz]
  2. pp. 111-112
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  1. 48. Anti-Semitic Seal of Metz
  2. pp. 113-114
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  1. The Use and Validity of Jewish Seals in French-Speaking Areas
  2. pp. 115-119
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  1. CHRISTIAN SPAIN
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  1. The Significance of the Seal
  2. pp. 122-123
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  1. Personal Seals
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  1. 50. Seal of Todros Halevi Son of Samuel Halevi of the Levi
  2. pp. 125-127
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  1. 51. Seal of Abraham Son of Saadia
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  1. 52. Seal of Seneor Son of Master Don Samuel
  2. pp. 128-129
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  1. 53. Seal of Joseph Son of Judah
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  1. 54. Seal of Chaim Son of the Sage Master Chaim Navon (or Nakon)
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  1. 55. Seal of Abraham Son of Moses Crudo
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  1. 56. Seal of Master Joshua Co[n]stantini
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  1. Community Seals
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  1. Passover Marking Seals
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  1. 59. Seven Days You Shall Eat Unleavened Bread: In Peace
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  1. Miscellanea
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  1. 61. Seal of Jacob
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  1. 62. Seal of Jochebed
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  1. 63. Seal of Jochebed (or Jochanan)
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  1. 64. Seal of Dulce
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  1. 65. Seal of Astruga
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  1. 66. Seal of Aaron Alnacoua (or Al-Nakawa)
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  1. 67. Seal of Tárrega
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  1. SOUTHERN SPAIN OR SICILY
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  1. 68. Seal of Solomon Son of Isaac
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  1. THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE
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  1. The Relevance of the Seal
  2. pp. 146-155
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  1. Switzerland
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  1. 70. Seal of Moses Son of Menachem/Mose
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  1. 71. Seal of Israel Son of Master Samuel/Susman
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  1. 72. Seal of Jacob Son of Solomon
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  1. 73. Seal of Vivlin Son of Moses/Vifli
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  1. 74. Seal of Viflin Son of Master Isaac
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  1. 75. Seal of Benjamin
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  1. Background of the Swiss Seals
  2. pp. 161-163
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  1. German States
  2. pp. 164-166
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  1. 76. Seal of Moses Son' of Joseph Halevi (Moysse Tannebach)
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  1. 77. Seal of Merolt Son of Joseph Halevi
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  1. 78. Seal of Meir Son of Asher Halevi (Mayer Aenseli)
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  1. 79. Seal of the Jews in Augsburg
  2. pp. 172-173
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  1. 80. Seal of Asher Son of Pesach Solomon/Lamb
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  1. 81. Seal of Judah Son of Baruch Hacohen/Judeli
  2. pp. 175-176
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  1. 82. Seal of Michel the Jew
  2. pp. 177-184
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  1. 83. Seal of Petter Son of Moses Halevi
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  1. 84. Seal of Gaedel Son of Master Petter Halevi
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  1. 85. Seal of Jacob of Ful
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  1. 86. Seal of Aferlein Son of Nachman
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  1. 87. Seal of Nachman Son of Jacob
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  1. 88. Seal of the Community of Regensburg
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  1. 89. Seal of the Community of Regensburg
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  1. 90. Seal of Gnendel the Jew
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  1. 91. Seal of Chalmon [Chalman] the Jew
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  1. 92. Seal of Saadia the Jew
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  1. 93. Seal of Saadia Son of Eleazar
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  1. 94. Seal of Saadia Son of Our Teacher Master Eleazar
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  1. 95. Seal of Disslob Daughter of Moses
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  1. 96. Seal of Disslaba Daughter of Master Moses
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  1. 97. Seal of David Son of Joseph
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  1. 98. Seal of Veivel the Jew
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  1. 99. Seal of Meir Hesse
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  1. 100. Seal of Petter Son of Moses
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  1. Rothenburg, Bavaria
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  1. Ingolstadt, Bavaria
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  1. Oettingen-Wallerstein
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  1. Fürth, Bavaria
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  1. Ulm, Württemberg
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  1. South and Central Rhineland
  2. pp. 209-213
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  1. 107. Seal of Abraham Son of Isaac
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  1. 108. Seal of Solomon Son of Samuel
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  1. 109. Seal of Moses Son of Isaac
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  1. 110. Seal of Michel
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  1. 111. Seal of Samuel Son of Isaac
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  1. 112. Seal of Jacob Son of Master Nathanael
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  1. 113. Seal of Vivelin (the Red)
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  1. 114. Seal of Jacob the Jew (the Scribe)
  2. pp. 222-223
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  1. 115. Seal of Joseph
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  1. 116. Seal Used by Reynette
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  1. 117. Seal of Moses Son of Our Teacher Master Jacob
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  1. 118. Seal of Aaron the Jew
  2. pp. 226-227
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  1. 119. Seal of Azriel Son of Menachem
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  1. 120. Seal of Joseph (Josel of Rosheim)
  2. pp. 228-229
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  1. 121. Seals of Natan and Six Other Jews
  2. p. 232
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  1. 122. Seal for the Aschaffenburg [Jewish] Debt
  2. pp. 234-236
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  1. 123. Seal of Abraham
  2. pp. 237-238
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  1. 124. Seal of Samuel Son of Abraham
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  1. 125. Seal of Joseal [Joselin] Son of Isaac
  2. pp. 239-240
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  1. The Rhine Flowing North
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  1. 127. Seal of Jacob Son of Joel
  2. pp. 242-244
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  1. 128. Seal of Anselm Son of Joseph
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  1. 129. Seal of Bonheym Son of Joseph
  2. pp. 245-246
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  1. Cologne
  2. pp. 247-249
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  1. 131. Seal of Aaron Son of Master Simcha Tson (Selichman Schaifsoen)
  2. pp. 250-251
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  1. 132. Seal of Meyer
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  1. 133. Seal of Moyszyn [Moses] Son of Meyer
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  1. Duisburg
  2. pp. 255-256
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  1. Dortmund, Westphalia
  2. p. 257
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  1. 136. Seal of Vyvelin
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  1. Münster, Westphalia
  2. pp. 259-260
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  1. 138. Seal of Simon
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  1. 139. Seal of Isaac
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  1. 140. Seal of Hartwich Said the Jew
  2. pp. 261-263
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  1. Minden, Lower Saxony
  2. pp. 264-265
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  1. Braunschweig (Brunswick), Lower Saxony
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  1. 143. Seal of Abraham the Jew
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  1. 144. Seal of Jordan the Jew
  2. pp. 267-268
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  1. Halberstadt, Magdeburg District
  2. pp. 269-270
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  1. Magdeburg
  2. pp. 271-272
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  1. Meiningen, Thuringia
  2. pp. 274-275
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  1. Breslau, Silesia [Wroclaw, Poland]
  2. pp. 276-277
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  1. 149. Seal of Jekuthiel Son of Bienush/Kussiel
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  1. Holland
  2. pp. 279-280
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  1. 151. Seal of Berwout the Jew
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  1. 152. Seal of Johan the Jew
  2. pp. 282-285
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  1. Austria
  2. pp. 286-290
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  1. Vienna
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  1. 154. Seal of Isaac the Jew
  2. pp. 292-293
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  1. 155. So-Called Jewish Community Seal of Austria
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  1. Klagenfurt, Carinthia
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  1. 157. Seal of Muschlein
  2. pp. 295-297
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  1. Crain [Kranj] [Formerly in Carinthia]
  2. pp. 298-299
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  1. Graz, Styria
  2. pp. 300-301
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  1. 160. Seal of Jana Son of Maul
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  1. 161. Seal of Nachman Son of Aaron
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  1. 162. Seal of Hyrsch Son of Isaac
  2. pp. 303-305
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  1. Judenburg, Styria
  2. pp. 306-307
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  1. Bohemia and Moravia
  2. pp. 308-310
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  1. HUNGARY
  2. pp. 311-314
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  1. The Jewish Seal
  2. pp. 315-326
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  1. 165. Seal of Mendel
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  1. 166. Seal of Jacob Mendel
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  1. 167. Seal of Jacob Mendel
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  1. 168. Seal of Jacob Mendel
  2. pp. 328-332
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  1. ITALY
  2. pp. 333-335
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  1. Verona
  2. pp. 337-338
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  1. Mantua
  2. pp. 339-341
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  1. 171. Seal of Angelo
  2. pp. 342-343
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  1. 172. Seal of Leone and Jacob Norsa
  2. pp. 344-350
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  1. Lucca
  2. pp. 351-361
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  1. MISCELLANEA
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  1. Poland
  2. pp. 364-365
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  1. Portugal
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  1. 176. Seal of the Magistrate of the Communities
  2. pp. 367-368
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  1. Byzantium
  2. pp. 369-372
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  1. Islamic Seals
  2. pp. 373-376
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  1. Bibliography
  2. pp. 377-386
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  1. Index
  2. pp. 387-399
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  1. Credits
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Additional Information

ISBN
9780814344859
MARC Record
OCLC
1055142843
Launched on MUSE
2018-10-02
Language
English
Open Access
Yes
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