In this Book

summary
Friedenberg's work provides the first comprehensive study of the use of seals by Jews from the 12th to the 16th century and their role in transforming Europe from a barter economy to a money economy. Structuring his analysis by geographic regions, Friedenberg examines the physical nature of the seals and discusses the symbols and legends they employ. He examines their relation to similar Christian seals, their legal validity and use, and their prevalence in certain areas at certain times. In all, 177 seals are catalogued. Where the impressions are appended to documents, the document is also reviewed. Whenever possible, the seals are illustrated, as are the most significant documents, along with other seals, medals, coins, letters and paintings which serve to illuminate the discussion of a seal. The result is the definitive catalog of all known Jewish seals of the period.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. open access View |
  1. Title Page
  2. open access View |
  1. Copyright
  2. open access View |
  1. Dedication
  2. pp. 5-6
  3. open access View |
  1. Contents
  2. pp. 7-12
  3. open access View |
  1. Illustrations
  2. pp. 13-16
  3. open access View |
  1. Acknowledgments
  2. pp. 17-19
  3. open access View |
  1. System of Transliteration
  2. pp. 20-27
  3. open access View |
  1. ENGLAND
  2. pp. 43-44
  3. open access View |
  1. Personal Seals
  2. pp. 45-46
  3. open access View |
  1. 2. Seal of Mildegode the Jew
  2. open access View |
  1. 3. Seal of Bonefay Son of Barton
  2. open access View |
  1. 4. Seal of Yosi Son of Bonefay
  2. pp. 49-50
  3. open access View |
  1. 5. Seal of Aaron
  2. open access View |
  1. Official Seals
  2. pp. 52-53
  3. open access View |
  1. Apocrypha and Falsely Dated Medieval Seals
  2. open access View |
  1. 8. Seal of Nathan Son of Frederic
  2. open access View |
  1. 9. Seal of Purnel Son of Matthias
  2. open access View |
  1. The Legal Validity of the Jewish Seal in England
  2. pp. 56-58
  3. open access View |
  1. FRANCE
  2. pp. 59-60
  3. open access View |
  1. Personal Seals
  2. pp. 61-62
  3. open access View |
  1. 11. Seal of Tobiah Son of Master Chiyya
  2. open access View |
  1. 12. Seal of Meyer Son of Judah
  2. open access View |
  1. 13. Seal of Chalafta Son of David
  2. open access View |
  1. 14. Seal of Gedaliah Son of Jekuthiel
  2. open access View |
  1. 15. Seal of Judah Son of Reuben Chasdai
  2. open access View |
  1. 16. Seal of Jechiel Son of Menachem Chaim
  2. open access View |
  1. 17. Seal of Solomon Son of Gedaliah
  2. pp. 68-69
  3. open access View |
  1. 18. Seal of Isaac Judah Son of Judah Lobel
  2. pp. 70-70
  3. open access View |
  1. 19. Seal of Kalonymos Son of Todros/Moumet of Narbonne
  2. open access View |
  1. 20. Seal of Todros Son of Kalonymos/Toros Momet
  2. pp. 72-74
  3. open access View |
  1. 21. Seal of David Son of Samuel/Mielet of the Portal
  2. pp. 77-78
  3. open access View |
  1. 22. Seal of Solomon Vidal of the Portal
  2. open access View |
  1. 23. Seal of Dulcie of the Portali
  2. pp. 80-82
  3. open access View |
  1. 24. Seal of Solomon Son of Joshua/Salamon of the Rampart
  2. open access View |
  1. 25. Seal of Masip Crechet
  2. open access View |
  1. 26. Seal of Tobi[ah] Son of Isaac/Cresques
  2. open access View |
  1. 27. Seal of Kalonymos Son of Solomon/Crescas of Masela
  2. open access View |
  1. 28. Seal of Josce: The Jew
  2. open access View |
  1. 29. Seal of Isaac Son of Jacob
  2. open access View |
  1. 30. Seal of Menesier the Jew of Dôle
  2. open access View |
  1. 31. Seal of Moiroudi the Jew
  2. pp. 88-88
  3. open access View |
  1. 32. Seal of Beniet (or Beniot)
  2. pp. 90-90
  3. open access View |
  1. 33. Seal of Jacob Son of Judah, Called Jacob of Nantes
  2. open access View |
  1. 34. Seal of Aaron Son of David, Called Haranc of Segré
  2. pp. 91-91
  3. open access View |
  1. Official Seals To Confirm Jewish Contracts
  2. open access View |
  1. 36. Counterseal of Debt of the Jews of Paris
  2. pp. 95-96
  3. open access View |
  1. 37. Seal of Debt of the Jews of Pontoise
  2. open access View |
  1. 38. Seal of Debt of the Jews of Provins
  2. pp. 98-100
  3. open access View |
  1. 39. Seal of the Jews
  2. pp. 101-101
  3. open access View |
  1. Conclusions Regarding Jewish State Seals
  2. pp. 102-103
  3. open access View |
  1. Questionable Seals and Miscellanea
  2. open access View |
  1. 41. Seal of [the Jews of] Avignon
  2. open access View |
  1. 42. Seal of Bartoli of Alvenno the Jew
  2. open access View |
  1. 43. Seal of Gervais the Jew
  2. open access View |
  1. 44. Seal of Aster [or Asterius]
  2. pp. 108-109
  3. open access View |
  1. 45. Seal of Astruc of Canoniga
  2. pp. 110-110
  3. open access View |
  1. 46. Seal of Simon Judas of Trote
  2. open access View |
  1. 47. Seal and Counterseal of the Paraige of Jewry [of Metz]
  2. pp. 111-112
  3. open access View |
  1. 48. Anti-Semitic Seal of Metz
  2. pp. 113-114
  3. open access View |
  1. The Use and Validity of Jewish Seals in French-Speaking Areas
  2. pp. 115-119
  3. open access View |
  1. CHRISTIAN SPAIN
  2. open access View |
  1. The Significance of the Seal
  2. pp. 122-123
  3. open access View |
  1. Personal Seals
  2. open access View |
  1. 50. Seal of Todros Halevi Son of Samuel Halevi of the Levi
  2. pp. 125-127
  3. open access View |
  1. 51. Seal of Abraham Son of Saadia
  2. open access View |
  1. 52. Seal of Seneor Son of Master Don Samuel
  2. pp. 128-129
  3. open access View |
  1. 53. Seal of Joseph Son of Judah
  2. open access View |
  1. 54. Seal of Chaim Son of the Sage Master Chaim Navon (or Nakon)
  2. open access View |
  1. 55. Seal of Abraham Son of Moses Crudo
  2. open access View |
  1. 56. Seal of Master Joshua Co[n]stantini
  2. pp. 132-132
  3. open access View |
  1. Community Seals
  2. open access View |
  1. Passover Marking Seals
  2. open access View |
  1. 59. Seven Days You Shall Eat Unleavened Bread: In Peace
  2. open access View |
  1. Miscellanea
  2. open access View |
  1. 61. Seal of Jacob
  2. open access View |
  1. 62. Seal of Jochebed
  2. open access View |
  1. 63. Seal of Jochebed (or Jochanan)
  2. open access View |
  1. 64. Seal of Dulce
  2. open access View |
  1. 65. Seal of Astruga
  2. open access View |
  1. 66. Seal of Aaron Alnacoua (or Al-Nakawa)
  2. open access View |
  1. 67. Seal of Tárrega
  2. open access View |
  1. SOUTHERN SPAIN OR SICILY
  2. open access View |
  1. 68. Seal of Solomon Son of Isaac
  2. pp. 142-144
  3. open access View |
  1. THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE
  2. open access View |
  1. The Relevance of the Seal
  2. pp. 146-155
  3. open access View |
  1. Switzerland
  2. open access View |
  1. 70. Seal of Moses Son of Menachem/Mose
  2. open access View |
  1. 71. Seal of Israel Son of Master Samuel/Susman
  2. open access View |
  1. 72. Seal of Jacob Son of Solomon
  2. open access View |
  1. 73. Seal of Vivlin Son of Moses/Vifli
  2. pp. 159-159
  3. open access View |
  1. 74. Seal of Viflin Son of Master Isaac
  2. open access View |
  1. 75. Seal of Benjamin
  2. open access View |
  1. Background of the Swiss Seals
  2. pp. 161-163
  3. open access View |
  1. German States
  2. pp. 164-166
  3. open access View |
  1. 76. Seal of Moses Son' of Joseph Halevi (Moysse Tannebach)
  2. open access View |
  1. 77. Seal of Merolt Son of Joseph Halevi
  2. open access View |
  1. 78. Seal of Meir Son of Asher Halevi (Mayer Aenseli)
  2. pp. 168-171
  3. open access View |
  1. 79. Seal of the Jews in Augsburg
  2. pp. 172-173
  3. open access View |
  1. 80. Seal of Asher Son of Pesach Solomon/Lamb
  2. open access View |
  1. 81. Seal of Judah Son of Baruch Hacohen/Judeli
  2. pp. 175-176
  3. open access View |
  1. 82. Seal of Michel the Jew
  2. pp. 177-184
  3. open access View |
  1. 83. Seal of Petter Son of Moses Halevi
  2. open access View |
  1. 84. Seal of Gaedel Son of Master Petter Halevi
  2. pp. 186-188
  3. open access View |
  1. 85. Seal of Jacob of Ful
  2. open access View |
  1. 86. Seal of Aferlein Son of Nachman
  2. open access View |
  1. 87. Seal of Nachman Son of Jacob
  2. pp. 191-192
  3. open access View |
  1. 88. Seal of the Community of Regensburg
  2. open access View |
  1. 89. Seal of the Community of Regensburg
  2. open access View |
  1. 90. Seal of Gnendel the Jew
  2. open access View |
  1. 91. Seal of Chalmon [Chalman] the Jew
  2. open access View |
  1. 92. Seal of Saadia the Jew
  2. open access View |
  1. 93. Seal of Saadia Son of Eleazar
  2. open access View |
  1. 94. Seal of Saadia Son of Our Teacher Master Eleazar
  2. open access View |
  1. 95. Seal of Disslob Daughter of Moses
  2. open access View |
  1. 96. Seal of Disslaba Daughter of Master Moses
  2. open access View |
  1. 97. Seal of David Son of Joseph
  2. open access View |
  1. 98. Seal of Veivel the Jew
  2. open access View |
  1. 99. Seal of Meir Hesse
  2. open access View |
  1. 100. Seal of Petter Son of Moses
  2. open access View |
  1. Rothenburg, Bavaria
  2. pp. 203-204
  3. open access View |
  1. Ingolstadt, Bavaria
  2. pp. 205-205
  3. open access View |
  1. Oettingen-Wallerstein
  2. pp. 206-207
  3. open access View |
  1. Fürth, Bavaria
  2. open access View |
  1. Ulm, Württemberg
  2. open access View |
  1. South and Central Rhineland
  2. pp. 209-213
  3. open access View |
  1. 107. Seal of Abraham Son of Isaac
  2. open access View |
  1. 108. Seal of Solomon Son of Samuel
  2. pp. 218-219
  3. open access View |
  1. 109. Seal of Moses Son of Isaac
  2. open access View |
  1. 110. Seal of Michel
  2. open access View |
  1. 111. Seal of Samuel Son of Isaac
  2. open access View |
  1. 112. Seal of Jacob Son of Master Nathanael
  2. open access View |
  1. 113. Seal of Vivelin (the Red)
  2. open access View |
  1. 114. Seal of Jacob the Jew (the Scribe)
  2. pp. 222-223
  3. open access View |
  1. 115. Seal of Joseph
  2. open access View |
  1. 116. Seal Used by Reynette
  2. open access View |
  1. 117. Seal of Moses Son of Our Teacher Master Jacob
  2. open access View |
  1. 118. Seal of Aaron the Jew
  2. pp. 226-227
  3. open access View |
  1. 119. Seal of Azriel Son of Menachem
  2. open access View |
  1. 120. Seal of Joseph (Josel of Rosheim)
  2. pp. 228-229
  3. open access View |
  1. 121. Seals of Natan and Six Other Jews
  2. pp. 232-232
  3. open access View |
  1. 122. Seal for the Aschaffenburg [Jewish] Debt
  2. pp. 234-236
  3. open access View |
  1. 123. Seal of Abraham
  2. pp. 237-238
  3. open access View |
  1. 124. Seal of Samuel Son of Abraham
  2. open access View |
  1. 125. Seal of Joseal [Joselin] Son of Isaac
  2. pp. 239-240
  3. open access View |
  1. The Rhine Flowing North
  2. open access View |
  1. 127. Seal of Jacob Son of Joel
  2. pp. 242-244
  3. open access View |
  1. 128. Seal of Anselm Son of Joseph
  2. open access View |
  1. 129. Seal of Bonheym Son of Joseph
  2. pp. 245-246
  3. open access View |
  1. Cologne
  2. pp. 247-249
  3. open access View |
  1. 131. Seal of Aaron Son of Master Simcha Tson (Selichman Schaifsoen)
  2. pp. 250-251
  3. open access View |
  1. 132. Seal of Meyer
  2. open access View |
  1. 133. Seal of Moyszyn [Moses] Son of Meyer
  2. open access View |
  1. Duisburg
  2. pp. 255-256
  3. open access View |
  1. Dortmund, Westphalia
  2. pp. 257-257
  3. open access View |
  1. 136. Seal of Vyvelin
  2. open access View |
  1. Münster, Westphalia
  2. pp. 259-260
  3. open access View |
  1. 138. Seal of Simon
  2. open access View |
  1. 139. Seal of Isaac
  2. open access View |
  1. 140. Seal of Hartwich Said the Jew
  2. pp. 261-263
  3. open access View |
  1. Minden, Lower Saxony
  2. pp. 264-265
  3. open access View |
  1. Braunschweig (Brunswick), Lower Saxony
  2. open access View |
  1. 143. Seal of Abraham the Jew
  2. open access View |
  1. 144. Seal of Jordan the Jew
  2. pp. 267-268
  3. open access View |
  1. Halberstadt, Magdeburg District
  2. pp. 269-270
  3. open access View |
  1. Magdeburg
  2. pp. 271-272
  3. open access View |
  1. Meiningen, Thuringia
  2. pp. 274-275
  3. open access View |
  1. Breslau, Silesia [Wroclaw, Poland]
  2. pp. 276-277
  3. open access View |
  1. 149. Seal of Jekuthiel Son of Bienush/Kussiel
  2. open access View |
  1. Holland
  2. pp. 279-280
  3. open access View |
  1. 151. Seal of Berwout the Jew
  2. open access View |
  1. 152. Seal of Johan the Jew
  2. pp. 282-285
  3. open access View |
  1. Austria
  2. pp. 286-290
  3. open access View |
  1. Vienna
  2. open access View |
  1. 154. Seal of Isaac the Jew
  2. pp. 292-293
  3. open access View |
  1. 155. So-Called Jewish Community Seal of Austria
  2. open access View |
  1. Klagenfurt, Carinthia
  2. open access View |
  1. 157. Seal of Muschlein
  2. pp. 295-297
  3. open access View |
  1. Crain [Kranj] [Formerly in Carinthia]
  2. pp. 298-299
  3. open access View |
  1. Graz, Styria
  2. pp. 300-301
  3. open access View |
  1. 160. Seal of Jana Son of Maul
  2. open access View |
  1. 161. Seal of Nachman Son of Aaron
  2. open access View |
  1. 162. Seal of Hyrsch Son of Isaac
  2. pp. 303-305
  3. open access View |
  1. Judenburg, Styria
  2. pp. 306-307
  3. open access View |
  1. Bohemia and Moravia
  2. pp. 308-310
  3. open access View |
  1. HUNGARY
  2. pp. 311-314
  3. open access View |
  1. The Jewish Seal
  2. pp. 315-326
  3. open access View |
  1. 165. Seal of Mendel
  2. open access View |
  1. 166. Seal of Jacob Mendel
  2. open access View |
  1. 167. Seal of Jacob Mendel
  2. open access View |
  1. 168. Seal of Jacob Mendel
  2. pp. 328-332
  3. open access View |
  1. ITALY
  2. pp. 333-335
  3. open access View |
  1. Verona
  2. pp. 337-338
  3. open access View |
  1. Mantua
  2. pp. 339-341
  3. open access View |
  1. 171. Seal of Angelo
  2. pp. 342-343
  3. open access View |
  1. 172. Seal of Leone and Jacob Norsa
  2. pp. 344-350
  3. open access View |
  1. Lucca
  2. pp. 351-361
  3. open access View |
  1. MISCELLANEA
  2. open access View |
  1. Poland
  2. pp. 364-365
  3. open access View |
  1. Portugal
  2. open access View |
  1. 176. Seal of the Magistrate of the Communities
  2. pp. 367-368
  3. open access View |
  1. Byzantium
  2. pp. 369-372
  3. open access View |
  1. Islamic Seals
  2. pp. 373-376
  3. open access View |
  1. Bibliography
  2. pp. 377-386
  3. open access View |
  1. Index
  2. pp. 387-399
  3. open access View |
  1. Credits
  2. open access View |

Additional Information

ISBN
9780814344859
MARC Record
OCLC
1055142843
Launched on MUSE
2018-10-02
Open Access
Yes
Back To Top

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Without cookies your experience may not be seamless.