Cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-2

Although the seeds that gave life to this book were first planted during undergraduate study abroad trips to São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, I began formally working on early versions while a PhD student at the University of California, Los Angeles. While in its present form the book has changed significantly from my time at UCLA, the final version owes much to the Eugene V. Cota-Robles Fellowship, the Graduate Research Mentorship Fellowship, the Dissertation Year Fellowship, the Graduate Summer Research Mentorship...

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Introduction

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pp. 3-20

Over the past fifty years, TV Globo has dominated Brazilian television to such an extent that it has become difficult to distinguish the television network from the medium itself. Since the early 1980s, no Brazilian television director has achieved greater commercial and critical success than one TV Globo employee, Luiz Fernando Carvalho. This book is about the Global South’s largest and most successful television network and its greatest director. More precisely, it is about the singular aesthetic and mode of production that...

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Chapter One. Asserting the Creative Role of the Television Director in a Writer’s World

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pp. 21-44

Throughout nearly his entire career in film and television, Luiz Fernando Carvalho has either directed telenovelas or adaptations of canonical Brazilian plays or novels. However, in 2010, after a quarter-century directing television fiction, Carvalho cowrote and directed his first original screenplay, the sixpart microseries Afinal, o que Querem as Mulheres? It is perhaps not surprising that Carvalho has described that microseries as his most authorial production in television to date.1 With Afinal, o que Querem as Mulheres? Carvalho lays...

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Chapter Two. Creating through the Preproduction Process

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pp. 45-65

In “Superávit” (“Surplus”), one of the comedy troupe and independent production company Porta dos Fundos’s hundreds of extremely popular YouTube videos, Congressman Valdo tries to convince Congressman Laércio to participate in stealing public funds. Decidedly against such corruption, Laércio suggests that rather than stealing from the Brazilian people, Valdo and his colleagues should reinvest this money in art and culture for the good of the population. Incredulously, Valdo asks: “Do you want to watch more...

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Chapter Three. Setting the Stage: From the Teleteatro to the Microseries

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pp. 66-90

The discussion thus far has centered around two primary, interrelated elements in Carvalho’s work. By emphasizing the medium’s artifice, the first is the assertion of the director in place of the television writer as the primary creative figure in Brazilian television fiction. The second is that Carvalho has developed an intimate and multilayered preproduction process as a means of exerting directorial control over his work in Brazilian television. As illustrated in the analysis of...

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Chapter Four. Establishing the Aesthetic Tone: The Opening Scene and Motifs

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pp. 91-132

Television fiction in Brazil is synonymous with the telenovela format. What is more, the primary source from which the realist, melodramatic narratives derive is the telenovela writer who sits at the top of the format’s creative hierarchy. Thus, the opening scene of most television fiction in Brazil is one of the few instances in which a director can assert those audiovisual elements that are distinctive to her creative style. As Jason Mittell notes, “The beginning of a narrative is an essential moment, establishing much of what will...

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Chapter Five. Rediscovering and Reappropriating Ancestral Roots

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pp. 133-173

According to the Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações (ANATEL—The National Agency of Telecommunications), 18,908,827 homes, approximately 28.35 percent of all Brazilian homes, had pay television as of April 2016 (“TV paga registra”). As a point of comparison, during the same month in 2012, 13,959,159 homes had pay television (“TV por assinatura cresce”). In contrast, Brazil’s dominant network, TV Globo, reaches approximately 99.5 percent of all homes. Thus, while the numbers indicate that pay television in Brazil is...

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Chapter Six. Taking the Show on the Road: Itinerant Television

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pp. 174-210

From its origins in 1950 to the present, Brazilian television has had a long tradition of adapting literary texts to the small screen. Drawing from Antonio Candido’s Literatura e Sociedade and Renato Ortiz’s A Moderna Tradição Brasileira, Randal Johnson argues:

In Brazil the market for symbolic goods historically has been highly restricted and concentrated, especially given the lack of generalized access to public education and the nation’s high levels of illiteracy (1890—84%, 1920—75%, 1940—57%....

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Chapter Seven. Changing with a Changing Landscape

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pp. 211-235

As I have alluded to in the introduction and at different moments throughout this book, the field of Brazilian television production is experiencing significant changes to its modes of production, including who produces, what is produced, and how and where audiences consume the increasingly varied forms of television fiction. Modifications to the field have directly impacted TV Globo and, consequently, Carvalho’s most recent television productions. A particularly good example of such modifications and of Carvalho himself...

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Conclusion. Reimagining the (Anti-)Telenovela

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pp. 236-248

During a 2001 roundtable interview centered on Lavoura Arcaica, Carvalho explained what led him to leave television in 1997. Despite having just directed O Rei do Gado, one of the most critically acclaimed and commercially successful telenovelas of all time, he felt trapped and dissatisfied with his work, no longer able to experiment with the audiovisual language in a way that was meaningful to him (Luiz Fernando Carvalho 30, 34). In short, as Carvalho puts it, TV Globo’s overly commercial mode of production for television...

Notes

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pp. 249-260

Bibliography

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pp. 261-274

Index

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pp. 275-286