Cover

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Half Title, Title Page, Copyright, In Memoriam, Epigraph

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Contents

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pp. ix-x

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xii

I thank franklin College President Thomas J. Minar, Vice President Tim Garner, and the Franklin Steering Committee for approving my sabbatical in 2016 that enabled me to complete this book. My colleagues in the Pulliam School of Journalism under Director John Krull made the sabbatical possible by dividing my advising and teaching load. ...

Credits

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pp. xiii-xiv

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Introduction: The Perils of Hazing, a Few Thoughts on Forty Years of Writing about Hazing

Hank Nuwer

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pp. 1-4

Revising yet another volume on hazing has been a challenging undertaking made all the more fulfilling for me as I worked with this book’s team of Indiana University Press editors and contributors that include the nation’s best-known academics on hazing, hazing legal experts, Greek and student affairs professionals, and antihazing activists. A new volume dedicated to hazing research ...

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1. Dead to Rites: The Chlorine Poisoning of Henrietta Jackson

Hank Nuwer

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pp. 5-23

Cornell University sponsored a gala inauguration for President Jacob G. Schurman on November 11, 1892. The faculty and students applauded and stomped the floor as Schurman said, “It is my desire and prayer that Cornell University may go on to evolve a more perfect type of manhood—a manhood which, shuffling off the animal core and fulfilling the divine idea of man, ...

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2. Hazing in Fraternities and Sororities: A Primer

Hank Nuwer

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pp. 24-41

Hazing in university fraternal groups in the United States is a pernicious and sometimes even deadly practice that dates back to the founding of the first collegiate fraternities in the nineteenth century. In spite of growing antihazing sentiment, laws against hazing in forty-four states and campus crackdowns, hazing persists as a rite of passage and tradition in colleges and universities ...

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3. A Need for Transparency: Parents, Students Must Make Informed Decisions About Greek-Life Risks

Douglas Fierberg, Chloe Neely

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pp. 42-49

The public awareness about the prevalence of fraternity hazing violence and campus sexual assaults has grown exponentially in recent years. In March 2014, the Atlantic published a lengthy exposé on the hidden dangers of fraternity life following a yearlong investigation into the perils of Greek life on college campuses.1 However, the risks posed by fraternities ...

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4. Shame: The Hidden Harm of Hazing for Victims and Hazers

Tracy Maxwell

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pp. 50-56

“Hidden harm” is a phrase coined to describe the effect a previous trauma—usually psychological, but sometimes physical—can have in exacerbating the impact of hazing on an individual. It can manifest from a variety of sources, including childhood abuse or neglect, sexual assault, violence, wartime military service, loss of a loved one, depression or other emotional issues, ...

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5. Sexual Hazing: A Wrongful Passage

Norm Pollard

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pp. 57-71

What makes athletes allow themselves to be put in dangerous and vulnerable situations? Why do athletes allow themselves to be degraded, humiliated, or hurt, all in the name of so-called tradition? Why would any person work so hard to be humbled for acceptance into a group that treats them in a way more reminiscent to Abu Ghraib than team building? ...

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6. Ill Met by Moonlight: The First Fraternity Hazing Death

Hank Nuwer

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pp. 72-87

Mortimer Marcellus Leggett was born on June 5, 1855, to Marilla and Mortimer D. Leggett. He entered Cornell University on September 11, 1873. Young Leggett’s dream after graduation was to join his father in the practice of patent law. ...

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7. Eliminating Band Hazing: What Must Be Done

Malinda Matney

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pp. 88-99

College and high school bands are part of what makes a campus feel like your campus. When someone walks down a hallway and hears a part of a rehearsal, it is clear that music is the focus of the class, something different from any other subject area. When attending a game, the sound and spirit of the band make this environment feel like home, and different from a professional sporting event. ...

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8. Hazing and Gender: Lenses for Prevention

Elizabeth J. Allan, Morgan B. Kinney

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pp. 100-115

In a culture that immerses us in a gendered track from a pink or blue baby blanket to superhero or princess costumes, to the type of shampoo we use as adults, gender differences are often seen as natural and inevitable. We all know that many behaviors are learned, yet environmental influences tend to be minimized when it comes to explaining differences between women and men. ...

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9. Listening to the Voices of the Hazed: An Examination of Race, Violence, and Black Fraternity Membership

Ashley Stone

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pp. 116-137

The negotiation between both race and gender has had specific implications for black men in the United States. In The Slave Community, John W. Blassingame states, “After marriage, the slave faced almost insurmountable odds in his efforts to build a strong, stable family. First, and most important of all, his authority was restricted by his master. . . . When the slave lived on the same plantation with his mate, ...

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10. Unspoken Sisterhood: Women in African American Sororities and Their Physical and Mental Ordeals—“Weeding the Good from the Bad”

Gina Lee-Olukoya

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pp. 138-153

On most college campuses during the fall and spring semesters, women prepare to attend informational sessions to learn what is required to become a member of a sorority. Some of these women seek to join a historically African American sorority to continue their family legacy, and others seek to join to be part of a social community that gives them entrance into a highly selective ...

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11. Sexually Exploitive Athletic Hazing and Title IX in the Public School Locker Room: Warriors, Machismo, and Jockstraps

Susan P. Stuart

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pp. 154-171

I once wrote a law review article on litigating a peer sexual harassment case in the public schools. Among my unspoken observations was that boys had greater success than girls in cases under Title IX. The reason for boys’ continued success under Title IX is because so many involved physical or sexual assault. A number of times male-on-male sexual harassment occurred in conjunction with sports. ...

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12. A Mother’s Story: I Lost My Child to Fraternity Hazing

Debbie Smith, Stacey Kennelly

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pp. 172-180

As you will learn, Wednesday, February 2, 2005, was the most horrific day of my life.
But first some back story.
I was at work the morning of Wednesday, March 2, 2005, when my phone rang. It was Detective Greg Keeney of the Chico, California, police. He was calling to tell me that eight warrants were being issued for arrests in the hazing death of our son Matthew, my firstborn. ...

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13. How Alfred University Ended the Greek System to Become a Hazing Research Institution

Norm Pollard

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pp. 181-204

The Alfred University football team experienced a hazing incident in 1998 that became a redefining moment for the institution. At the end of preseason camp, the rookie football players were required to attend an off-campus “celebration” and “initiation.” Little did they know that they would be handcuffed together with strapping tape, ...

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14. How Schools May Have Facilitated and Operationalized Hazing: An Interview with Peter F. Lake

Hank Nuwer

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pp. 205-210

An expert in tort liability and higher education law, Peter F. Lake holds the Charles A. Dana Chair at Stetson University. He is a school safety legal expert and the director of the Center for Excellence in Higher Education Law and Policy. Lake, a graduate of Harvard Law School, has written many influential articles and books, ...

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15. A Fraternity Model: Addressing Campus Alcohol Misuse and Abuse

Edward G. Whipple, Robert A. Biggs

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pp. 211-219

The general council of Phi Delta Theta International Fraternity adopted a revision to its risk management policies in March 1997 known as alcohol-free housing. Specifically the governing board’s policy stated, “All chapter facilities and properties in Phi Delta Theta Fraternity shall be alcohol-free at all times and under all circumstances.” The decision was a bold, dramatic transformation ...

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16. A Realistic Approach to Public Relations for Fraternities in Crisis

Ray Begovich

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pp. 220-225

Your day is busy, as usual, but humming along smoothly in your national fraternity headquarters office, or in your student affairs office, or in your oak-paneled college president’s office.
Then you get the news—maybe by phone, by text, by email, or by someone rushing breathlessly into your workspace. ...

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17. A Sorority Hazing Hero Incurs the Wrath of Alums

Sarah Wild

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pp. 226-230

It was my first time on TV. I think most people would feel pretty nervous. You know, being in front of the camera where hundreds, maybe even thousands, of people will see you. Will you stutter? Are you wearing the right shirt? What if you freeze up and forget what you’re talking about? Luckily, this wasn’t like me. Being a singer since the age of eight, I didn’t really experience “stage fright,” ...

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18. How Reforms and Reformers Played a Role in Changing a Hazing Culture

Allison Swick-Duttine

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pp. 231-239

In October 1998 I began my professional career working with fraternities and sororities at the State University of New York College at Plattsburgh where hazing was rooted in the institution’s culture. Nothing I learned in graduate school student-affairs counseling prepared me for the impact that hazing has on its victims and the campus culture. ...

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19. Hazing Hides in Plain Sight: An Open Letter to Hazers from a Nationally Known Speaker

David Westol

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pp. 240-246

You’d think they—the hazers, of course—would have figured it out by now. That they would have done the math. Run the numbers. Used reductive and deductive reasoning. Maybe listened more than talked. Dialed up the 4-1-1 on this aspect of hazing. ...

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20. Hazing and University Ethics: The Need for Faculty Involvement and Guidance

James F. Keenan,

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pp. 247-253

In her compelling essay in Atlantic Monthly, “The Dark Power of Fraternities,” social critic Caitlin Flanagan acknowledges that fraternities “raise millions of dollars for worthy causes, contribute millions of hours in community service, and seek to steer young men toward lives of service and honorable action.” But, she adds, “They also have a long, dark history of violence ...

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21. Understanding Hazing in the Perilous World of Guyland: An Interview with Michael Kimmel

Hank Nuwer

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pp. 254-258

During his distinguished career as a pioneering scholar in gender studies and State University of New York sociology professor, Michael Kimmel has tackled hazing as an important gender topic. He is well known for his contributions to the literature on hazing for insights published in his book Guyland: The Perilous World Where Boys Become Men.1 ...

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22. A Cold Case: How Did Joe Bisanz Die?

Hank Nuwer

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pp. 259-267

Strong and coordinated, Joe Bisanz once hit a home run that cleared a fence and hit the fifty-yard line of an adjacent football field. He once chased a deer through the woods near his suburban Chicago home. He dreamed of being a rock-and-roll drummer, but hated what drugs did to Kurt Cobain. ...

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23. Women and a Feminine Leadership Style Can Defeat Hazing

Tracy Maxwell

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pp. 268-276

“The world will be saved by the Western woman.” When the Dalai Lama, who also referred to himself as a feminist, said this during the 2009 Vancouver Peace Summit, he perhaps could not have known how far and wide his statement would be quoted, and the terrific impact it would make. Amy O’Brian of the Vancouver Sun also quoted him as calling for ...

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24. The Purdue Tank Scrap

David Hovde

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pp. 277-285

Purdue University, like all colleges and universities, has a long history of customs and traditions unique to the institution. The nightshirt parade, the Purdue Circus, the Burning of Miss Indiana, the Cords, the Mechanics Burning, the Nude Olympics, and the Grand Prix are just a few that have come into being over the years. Some were short-lived and some endured for decades. ...

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25. A Blueprint for Greek Reforms: How to Establish an Antihazing Task Force with Concrete “Good First Steps” to Change a Hazing Culture

Travis T. Apgar

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pp. 286-298

I can recall the morning of February 25, 2011, with vivid detail. It appeared to be a typical winter morning in Central New York. I woke to snow, dressed for the cold, and headed out to clear the drive. After I went back into my house to warm up, I received a call from the Cornell University dean of students. He informed me that I was needed on campus as soon as possible. ...

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26. Hazing and the Law and Litigation: What You Need to Know

R. Brian Crow, Colleen McGlone

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pp. 299-314

The dearth of hazing litigation seems at odds with the continued prevalence of hazing, particularly considering forty-four states by August 2017 have passed antihazing statutes. Therefore, it is fitting to ask why the criminal prosecution of hazing, as well as civil litigation involving hazing, continues to occur so infrequently. Further, the study of how antihazing legislation has evolved is essential, ...

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27. Smokeouts and Smokescreens: Military Hazing

Hank Nuwe

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pp. 315-324

While many a tree has been pulped for publications related to congressional investigations concerning hazing in the service academies, few government publications have addressed military hazing despite hazing-related suicides, psychological meltdowns, physical abuse, tawdry line-crossing ceremonies, navy chief horseplay, and revenge beatings known as smokeouts conducted by senior troops taken against “slackers” ...

Notes

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pp. 325-348

Index

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pp. 349-354