Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-iv

Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Acknowledgments

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pp. vii-x

Any book is a collaborative effort, but a book that draws on the intellectual talents of scholars from multiple disciplines suggests that the traditional thank-yous will fall short of the mark. This book is no exception, since from its beginning it has been the product of deep thinking, serious research...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-8

Why the eighteenth centuries, and not—if we insist on the pluralization of the concept—Enlightenments? After all, scholars in the last twenty years have realized that the Enlightenment (in the singular, as it had been known for nearly two centuries) is a multifaceted, richly textured, and often contradictory...

Part I. Knowledge and the Lives of Books

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Introduction

Sophia Rosenfeld

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pp. 11-13

Knowledge, it might be said, was both the great subject and the great object of the Enlightenment. Of course, the use of the term Enlightenment to designate the rich intellectual and cultural life of eighteenth-century Europe and its New World outposts remains controversial, in part because of the...

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Enlightenment, Some Assembly Required

Brad Pasanek and Chad Wellmon

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pp. 14-39

The main figures that populate accounts of the Enlightenment are human, be they enemies of the Enlightenment, such as the priest or the tyrant; defenders such as the philosophe or Aufklärer; or intellectuals socially assembled in coffeehouses or salons, exercising opinion in rational, critical...

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An Inventory of the Estate of William Strahan in 1759

Michael Pickard

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pp. 40-50

What do books as physical objects teach us about the cultures that produced them? How do they inform us about those who wrote them, those whose business it was to make them, the individuals and firms that distributed them? What do they tell us about the people who bought, borrowed, gave...

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Understanding an Obscure Text: The Fortunate Foundlings and the Limits of Interdisciplinarity

Patricia Meyer Spacks

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pp. 51-66

Eliza Haywood’s enormous literary production includes many works that have received little or no recent critical attention. Although such works readily lend themselves to various critical agendas, they often prove challenging to assess in their own terms. The Fortunate Foundlings (1744) provides...

Part II. Human Economies

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Introduction

Andrew O’Shaughnessy

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pp. 69-71

Thomas Carlyle was one of the first historians to write critically about the Enlightenment. He did not treat it as simply part of the history of progress but identified negative features that culminated in the French Revolution. The objections he raised and the values he espoused find little sympathy...

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How Long Does Blood Last? Degeneration as Blanqueamiento in the Americas

Ruth Hill

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pp. 72-94

For more than a decade, I have been convinced that folk knowledge, especially Spanish folk knowledge, about selectively breeding plants and brutes generated and structured the blanqueamiento, or whitening, equations for humans in the Americas that were to become systematized and well known...

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Thomas Jefferson: Breeding and Buying Horses, Connecting Family, Friends, and Neighbors

Carrie B. Douglass

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pp. 95-119

In eighteenth-century Virginia, newly imported English horses were among the many possessions that passed between family members and sealed relationships between friends. As a member of the Virginia planter elite, Thomas Jefferson moved in these horse-owning circles, in which horses...

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The Jamaican Plantation: Industrial, Global, Contested

Louis P. Nelson

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pp. 120-144

A bumpy, twenty-minute drive south from the coastal highway takes you to Good Hope, John Tharp’s late-eighteenth-century Jamaican plantation.1 Passing the steep drive up to the great house, the road leads to a stone warehouse on the way to the rushing waters of the Martha Brae River. Just before...

Part III. Artists’ Geographies

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Introduction

Richard Will

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pp. 147-148

The Enlightenment always had a dark side. This is not news; after two centuries of critique, no one would claim that its big thinkers were infallibly progressive, nor that the societies they inhabited lacked injustice and human misery. Reminders are everywhere, not least at the University of Virginia...

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Emotional Geographies: Watteau and the Fate of Women

Mary D. Sheriff

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pp. 149-177

Nowhere has the representation of love been seen as more ubiquitous than in eighteenth-century French art. Venus and Cupid have long been hailed as the titular deities of the rococo, with Cythera as their favored site. Whether it be the loves of the gods, the seductions of gallant suitors, the clumsy...

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Painting New England in the Dutch West Indies: John Greenwood’s Sea Captains Carousing in Surinam

Katelyn D. Crawford

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pp. 178-196

On 16 December 1752 the Boston- born portrait painter John Greenwood arrived in Paramaribo, the capital of the Dutch colony of Surinam, on the northeast coast of South America. Sailing from Boston, the twenty-five-year-old did not know that he would never again set foot in his hometown...

Part IV. Dramatic Politics

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Introduction

Bonnie Gordon

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pp. 199-201

The Beggar’s Opera premiered on 29 January 1728. John Gay’s ballad opera satirized Italian opera and offered an eighteenth-century mash-up of sounds from Italian opera buffa, Handel’s most popular arias, the Scottish folk tradition, and more. The satirical slam on aristocratic culture and what we would...

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Mozart and the American Revolution

Pierpaolo Polzonetti

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pp. 202-232

The American Revolution had a substantial impact on Italian opera in the late eighteenth century. At that time, Italian opera was the leading international genre of public entertainment, comparable to the twentieth-century American movie industry. Ideas about Revolutionary America inspired...

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The Drama of Marriage in Eighteenth-Century Venice: Carlo Goldoni’s La locandiera

Adrienne Ward

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pp. 233-263

This essay proposes a new reading of Carlo Goldoni’s beloved comedy La locandiera, written and first performed at the Teatro Sant’Angelo in Venice in 1752. As its title implies, the protagonist is a female innkeeper. Her captivating qualities (she is named Mirandolina, after all), the guesthousebordello...

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Performances of Suffering and the Stagecraft of Sympathy

Jennifer Reed

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pp. 264-275

In the mid-to late eighteenth century, the so-called Age of Sensibility, questions of how individuals were to relate to one another in civil society were increasingly theorized. Jonathan Lamb posits that these questions—questions of sympathy—arise in situations of “comparative powerlessness in...

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The Aesthetics of Excess Rococo Vestiges of Tartuffe in Isla’s Father Gerundio

Casey R. Eriksen

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pp. 276-286

Taking an occasional pinch of snuff, the narrator of the History of the Famed Preacher, Father Gerundio de Campazas, alias Zotes (1758, 1768) invites his reader to view the rhetorical excesses of the fictional preachers of his age. In his widely celebrated and heatedly contested novel, the Jesuit writer José...

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About MapScholar

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pp. 287-288

The essays in this collection are accompanied by “The Digital Eighteenth Centuries,” a digital atlas created on the MapScholar platform. You can find the site by visiting http://www.mapscholar.org/18th. MapScholar is an NEH- and ACLS-funded digital platform for geospatial visualization with...

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Contributors

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pp. 289-294

JAMES P. AMBUSKE received his PhD in history from the University of Virginia in 2016. He is a historian of the American Revolution with particular interests in Scotland and America in the late eighteenth century. A former Georgian Papers Programme Fellow, James is currently the Farmer Postdoctoral...

Index

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pp. 295-306