Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-xiv

We met because we are both members of the Upstate New York Women’s History Organization. Its goal is to encourage and support scholarship and continuing education related to women and gender in upstate New York. We are historians of women’s political and labor activism in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; ...

Timeline

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pp. xv-xviii

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Introduction: From Ridicule to Referendum

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pp. 1-6

Lillie Devereux Blake of New York, like many other women, resented the exclusion of women from economic and political life but also feared joining the “abused and ridiculed movement” that was woman suffrage in the late 1860s. Despite her fear, she visited the office of the women’s rights paper the Revolution at its headquarters in the Women’s ...

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1. Tenuous Ties: Creating a Woman Suffrage Movement in New York State

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pp. 7-24

In September 1852, at the Woman’s Rights Convention in Syracuse, twenty-six-year-old Matilda Joslyn Gage clasped the hand of her five-year-old daughter and asked the chair’s permission to speak. In her first public speech, Gage boldly articulated principles she would expound upon her entire life: ...

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2. “Ruffling the Somewhat Calm Domain”: Rural Women and Suffrage

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pp. 25-48

In 1914, a female farmer from Delaware County, New York, expressed her indignation when she watched her hired man leave for the polls on Election Day. She told the National American Woman Suffrage Association’s County Chair, Jennie O. Curtis [Mrs. Henry White] Cannon: “I own my own farm, set up my own table, pay all the taxes, ...

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3. The Quest for Industrial Citizenship: Woman Suffrage and Immigrant Garment Workers

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pp. 49-70

Just as icy spring rains began to melt the record-breaking snow of 1893, an unnamed eighteen-year-old homeless woman, weak with hunger, collapsed on a downtown Rochester street. Not knowing what else to do, patrolmen carried the unconscious woman to their station to revive her. ...

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4. A Fundamental Component: Suffrage for African American Women

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pp. 71-91

Sarah J. S. Garnet, representing the Colored Women’s Equal Suffrage League of Brooklyn, and Irene L. Moorman, the president of the Negro Women’s Business League, met with the wealthy and fervent white suffragist Alva Vanderbilt Belmont in January 1910 at the office of Belmont’s Political Equality Association. ...

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5. Persuading the “Male Preserve”: Men and the Woman Suffrage Movement

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pp. 92-113

On May 6, 1912, half a million New Yorkers watched in awe as one row of suffragists after another paraded along Fifth Avenue. The women, representing “every grade of society and every walk of life,” impressed onlookers with their dignified solidarity.1 Toward the end of the parade, a “solid cluster of men,” ...

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6. Radicalism and Spectacle: New Women Modernize the Suffrage Movement

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pp. 114-141

By 1907, the editor of the New York Times described the changing persona of the suffrage activist: “the old days when a gaunt, masculine, and forbidding appearance seemed to fit the woman with thoughts have long since passed; the old-time ‘war horse’ of woman suffrage has passed. ...

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7. The Great Interruption: World War I and Woman Suffrage

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pp. 142-161

Abandoning woman suffrage for war work remained one of the journalist Rheta Childe Dorr’s lifelong regrets.1 At first, in a “stirring” editorial for the Suffragist, she erroneously predicted that “war could have no effect on the struggle of American women for the ballot.”2 Wrestling with the notion that no cause demanded more attention ...

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8. Rising from the Ashes of Defeat: The Woman Suffrage Victory in New York State

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pp. 162-182

In early August 1917, from her suffrage post in Auburn, New York, Mary Elizabeth Pidgeon wrote home to her “folks” apologizing for her lapse in correspondence. Pidgeon admitted to her exhaustion after being on “the hard rush all day,” trying to involve women and men in the woman suffrage movement. Before the day ended, ...

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Conclusion: Winning the Nation

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pp. 183-194

In 1917, after sixty-nine years of suffrage activity, New York women won full suffrage. To commemorate the victory, suffragists held a woman citizens’ dinner at the Hotel Biltmore, where Vira Boarman Whitehouse, the guest of honor, accepted a wax replica of a wreath she would receive later. Members of the New York State Woman Suffrage ...

Appendixes

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pp. 195-202

Notes

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pp. 203-266

Bibliography

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pp. 267-282

Index

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pp. 283-296