Cover

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Half Title, Series Info, Title Page, Copyright, Dedication, Quotations

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Foreword

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pp. ix-x

It is typical of the Basques that their involvement of five centuries in the New World has so successfully avoided historical mention of any general scope. Reticence has always been the deeper mark of the Basque character. ...

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Preface to Paperback Edition

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pp. xi-xiv

The present printing of Amerikanuak comes nearly thirty years after its initial publication. Much has transpired. My coauthor Jon Bilbao and Robert Lax.alt, noted Basque-American author and then director of the University of Nevada Press, are both deceased. ...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xv-xvi

research for the present volume was conducted throughout the American West, in several Latin American countries, and in Europe. The project lasted from 1967 to 1974. During this time several hundred persons contributed in some fashion to our efforts and we wish to take this opportunity to thank them. ...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-8

The New World is a mosaic of ethnic groups. No period of its history, no sector of its society, and none of its regions may be understood fully if immigrant traditions and ethnic heritages are ignored. Consequently, the literature (both scientific and literary) dealing with American immigrant and ethnic groups is staggering. ...

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1. The Basque People

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pp. 9-60

What is a Basque?" This is a question that is often heard even in the American West, where for more than a century the Basque people have been identified with the region's sheep industry. The confusion stems from the fact that the Basque homeland in modern times has lacked political sovereignty. ..

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2. Mercenaries, Missionaries, Mariners, and Merchants

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pp. 61-116

On the eve of the discovery of America, political jurisdiction on the Iberian peninsula was fragmented among several independent kingdoms, and a firm dividing line between Iberian and French spheres of influence had not, as yet, crystallized. The Basque country was itself divided into several political entities with loyalties to different sovereigns. ...

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3. Sheepmen of South America

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pp. 117-176

In the early years of the nineteenth century, independence movements swept through Spain's New World colonies. By 1825 all of the continental or mainland former colonies had achieved their autonomy, and Spain's influence in the Americas was reduced to a foothold in the Antilles. ...

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4. Basques in Spanish California

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pp. 177-202

During the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the Jesuit order was quite influential in Mexican society, particularly among its Basque colony. After all, the very founders of the order, Saint Ignatius (a Guipuzcoan from Loyola) and Saint Francis (a Navarrese from Javier), were both Basques. ...

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5. Basque Beginnings in the New California

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pp. 203-246

Among the Basque "old-timers" of Boise it is said that the first Basque in the American West arrived in 1849. He was a mariner from Ea (Vizcaya), captain of a Chilean merchant vessel and married to a Chilean woman. According to the account, he was accompanied by two other Basques, ...

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6. Beyond California

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pp. 247-326

California served as the first foothold for Basque immigration into the post-Hispanic American West. It was in California that Basque immigrants, many of whom had experience in South America, were able to establish livestock operations under what approached genuine frontier conditions. ...

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7. Ethnicity Maintenance Among Basque-Americans

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pp. 327-396

Basques were among the first Europeans to emigrate to the Americas, and some five centuries later the process continues. We have seen that the emigrants' New World destinations were varied and subject to change. By now, the historical roots of the major New World Basque colonies are at least several generations deep. ...

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8. Conclusion

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pp. 397-412

It is in viewing Basque emigration against the backdrop of almost five centuries of history in Europe and both continents of the New World that the problem of interpreting the Basques is fully apparent. For those who stereotype the Basque emigrant as a simple sheepherder, there is a lesson in Spanish colonial history. ...

Appendixes

Appendix 1. Document of Departure of Pedro Altube Prepared in Oñate, Guipúzcoa 6 May 1845

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p. 413

Appendix 2. Persons with Basque Names, or Associated with Basques, Who Applied for Passports in Buenos Aires Listing California as Their Destination

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pp. 414-415

Appendix 3. I. Passports with Basque Names, Issued by the Intendencia de Valparaíso, to Persons Listing California as Their Destination, 1849

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pp. 416-420

Appendix 4. Basque Biographies in California County Histories

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pp. 421-424

Appendix 5. Synopses of Biographical Sketches of Fourteen Basques who Entered California Between 1845 and 1860

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pp. 425-427

Appendix 6. "Conbenio" or Contract Between Don Abel Stearns and Don Domingo Amestoy

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pp. 428-429

Appendix 7. Communities of the American West that have at present, or have had in the past, Basque ethnic group organizations and manifestations

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pp. 430-433

Appendix 8. Basque Hotelkeepers in Idaho, Oregon, Nevada, and Utah, according to Sol Silen

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pp. 434-436

Notes

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pp. 437-458

Bibliography

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pp. 459-490

Index

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pp. 491-519