Cover

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Half Title, Series Page, Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Acknowledgments

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pp. vii-x

It seems fitting to begin by thanking the creative people at Motown. The musicians, songwriters, producers, arrangers, technologists, photographers, business people, and so many others. They made the music. They are the inspiration for the book. ...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-14

Motown Records was launched in Detroit in 1959 by an African American man named Berry Gordy. It was one of several hundred record companies focused on rhythm and blues (R&B) that opened for business during a steady music industry expansion following the Second World War. R&B was defined by the race of its performers, ...

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1. Searching for Motown

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pp. 15-40

During the first decades of the twentieth century a new industry centered on sales of commercial recordings transformed music into a mechanical and portable object that could be enjoyed by anyone with the means to purchase a player and some records. The mass-marketed products of inventors like Alexander Graham Bell, Emile Berliner, ...

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2. The Rise of the Motown Sound

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pp. 41-68

Motown was a well-oiled machine in the mid-1960s.2 The company expanded exponentially after its early success, hiring dozens of songwriters, arrangers, backing musicians, and producers. It had offices and departments for sales, marketing, and finance, and Berry Gordy owned the company’s music publishing, managed its artists, ...

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3. Motown and Soul

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pp. 69-99

The Motown Sound was not the only popular style of crossover R&B during the 1960s. At the same time that Motown’s music became synonymous with mechanization, urbanity, and refinement, another significant strain of R&B slowly emerged that featured different signifiers of African American identity. ...

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4. Motown International

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pp. 100-134

Many record companies that were aligned with the R&B market in the 1960s pursued audiences in foreign countries. A lot of these firms were simultaneously navigating a move into the American mainstream, and attempts to enter a vast international marketplace became another form of crossover. ...

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5. From Motown to the MoWest

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pp. 135-163

Motown’s management arm arranged many television and film appearances to cross-promote its music during the early 1960s. The company’s work in this area was part of a movement that paralleled the rise of crossover R&B, in which African American musicians were increasingly active in mainstream visual media.2 ...

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6. The 1980s and Beyond

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pp. 164-194

At the beginning of the 1980s Motown was a show-business juggernaut. A decade after moving to California to initiate a visual media arm, it was still the highest-grossing black-owned company in the United States. Its music division released about 450 singles and nearly as many albums during the 1980s and was among the largest independent record companies in the world.1 ...

Appendixes

Appendix 1: Selected International Recordings of Motown Songs, 1963–68 (Excluding England)

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pp. 195-202

Appendix 2: Selected Recordings of Motown Songs Released in England, 1963–67

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pp. 203-206

Notes

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pp. 207-272

Bibliography

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pp. 273-322

Index

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pp. 323-334