Cover

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Title Page, Frontispiece, Copyright

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pp. i-iv

Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Preface

José Anadón

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pp. vii-xii

The present volume assembles a series of essays presented at the colloquium on Garcilaso Inca de la Vega which was held at the University of Notre Dame from March 31 to April 2, 1996. Some articles were added from an earlier symposium on Garcilaso which took place in May 199:) at the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru. The event at Notre Dame was organized to honor the memory of Jose Durand, one of the leading "garcilacistas" of his time, and to commemorate the acquisition by...

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In Remembrance of José Durand

Aurelio Miró-Quesada Sosa

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pp. xiii-xvi

This symposium represents a double tribute which deeply gratifies me. It is first of all a homage to Garcilaso Inca, the founding father of Peruvian and Latin American letters, who not only spreads his mestizo blood and Indian emotions over the vast landscape of Western culture, but at the same time represents a living example of cultural harmony and cultural synthesis. He was the son of a Spanish captain of illustrious noble descent and an Inca palla. Garcilaso Inca has described his early years in his...

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Introduction

José A. Rodriguez Garrido

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pp. 1-7

Despite the considerable amount of bibliographical material available on Garcilaso Inca de la Vega, a brief summary of the contributed essays in this volume highlights the extent to which the themes and debates surrounding the work of the mestizo historian remain both open and in need of new critical approaches. Many of the paths cleared by José Durand, to whose memory we dedicate this book, have yet to be thoroughly explored....

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1. The Incas and Rome

Sabine MacCormack

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pp. 8-31

When Garcilaso de la Vega wrote in the preface to the Royal Commentaries that his home was "the city of Cuzco, which was another Rome in that Empire, "1 he was drawing on a tradition that was by then well established in historical writing about the Incas. Rome had been present in the minds of the very first invaders while they made their way south from Panama. It was the memory of the Roman conquest and government of Spain that made the Incas recognizable as rulers of an empire and as exponents...

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2. Garcilaso's Historical Approach to the Incas

Franklin Pease G. Y.

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pp. 32-41

In one of his last articles on Garcilaso Inca de la Vega, José Durand expressed a concern which, even today, is as profound as it is accurate:

A simplistic idea is gaining ground, without the benefit of previously careful criticism, which asserts that the historical works of Inca Garcilaso have only literary value. Such generalizations, which are commonly heard today in American universities, constitute the beginning of several...

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3. The Self Baptism of Garcilaso Inca

Juan Bautista Avalle-Arce

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pp. 42-45

During the years that Garcilaso lived in Spain, a notable event took place in his life which has been little addressed by the scholars of Colonial literature. Many critics still continue to react to slogans which originated during the times of Marcelino Menéndez y Pelayo, who spoke of the "semi-barbarous, semi-educated" mind of Garcilaso and of his "rich, yet always infantile, imagination." One of the positive results of gatherings such as this one will be to bury forever such inanities. The study of...

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4. The Problematic Representation of Viracocha in the Royal Commentaries, and Why Garcilaso Bears and Deserves the Title of Inca

Pierre Duviols

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pp. 46-58

The war between the Incas and their neighbors, the Chancas, is certainly one of the most important events in the history of the Peruvian dynasty, and Garcilaso's account of this episode differs significantly from those of historiographers who preceded him. Critics have noted this discrepancy. I would like to offer an explanation and attempt to prove that it was necessary for him to assume the position he did in order to justify his self-proclaimed...

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5. The Virgin Mary and the Possibility of Conciliation of Distinctive Cultural Traditions in the General History of Perú

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pp. 59-70

One of the criteria of historical truth prevalent in the sixteenth century was the understanding of God's presence in historical processes. Thus, the sixteenth-century historians recognized the theological basis of every human act. Miraculous apparitions and prodigies prevailed in their providentialist historical accounts. This perspective, based on Saint Augustine, was renewed and enriched during the Counter-Reformation. Within this context, the Virgin Mary plays three fundamental roles in...

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6. Garcilaso Inca and the Tradition of Viri Illustres (Dedication and Prologue of the Royal Commentaries, Part II)

José A. Rodríguez Garrido

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pp. 71-89

The publication by José Durand in 1948 of the inventory and the identification of the books in Garcilaso's library constituted one of the most substantial works of Garcilasian studies. Since then, specialists have counted on a reliable corpus through which to approach the works of a man who acquired his humanism not through the university but through dialogue and, more than anything, through books. Although the inventory does not reflect everything that Garcilaso read, 1 it contributes...

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7. Garcilaso and the Origins of Garcilacism: The Role of the Royal Commentaries in the Development of a Peruvian National Imaginaire

José Antonio Mazzotti

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pp. 90-109

As is common knowledge, the oeuvre and person of Garcilaso Inca de la Vega have occasioned numerous interpretations, and responses ranging from superlative praise to an increasing distrust. Especially since the nineteenth century, Garcilaso has been the cause of many ideological battles, whether fought by hispanists, indigenists, or mestizists. Most of these debates range beyond the field of literary criticism. Garcilaso's histories have been used as a point of departure for imagining a cultural past and for...

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8. Goths and Turks and the Representation of Pagans and Infidels in Garcilaso and Ercilla

Efraín Kristal

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pp. 110-124

For Garcilaso Inca de la Vega, the Inca Empire was another Rome inasmuch as it providentially prepared the way for Christianity in the Andean region.1 The idea, however, that a pagan empire could establish the groundwork for Christianity is by no means unique to Garcilaso, and it is at least as old as the fourth-century church historian Eusebius.2

Since the 1950s, the best critics of Garcilaso have understood the significance of providentialist notions in the...

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9. The Concept of General Language in Garcilaso Inca

Rodolfó Cerron-Palomino

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pp. 125-132

The processes of conquest, occupation, and colonialization of the Amerindian populations were, in effect, a mere recapitulation and amplification of those that had taken place for many centuries on the "cultural borderline" shared by the Muslim-Hispanic peoples of the Iberian peninsula (Solano 1991 ). The novelty in the American case, aside from the various groups involved and the violence with which they were subdued, has to do with the landscape and, for the point of our concern, with the...

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10. The Discourse on Exemplarity in Garcilaso de la "Vega's La Florida del Inca

Eduardo Hopkins-Rodríguez

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pp. 133-140

The discourse on exemplarity is an intrinsic component of Garcilaso de la Vega's La Florida del Ynca ( 1605) . Such a discourse is not merely a set of sententious pronouncements expressed in a vague ethical or moral sense, nor is it employed for strictly ornamental purposes. On the contrary, exemplarity is one of the main constituents of the historical discourse of La Florida.

The theme of exemplarity recurs in other works by Garcilaso. In the prologue to Part II of the Royal Commentaries, he explains:...

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11. A New and Unpublished Manuscript of Garcilaso's Florida

Miguel Maticorena Estrada

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pp. 141-148

An early and still unpublished manuscript of Garcilaso's La Florida del Ynca ( The Florida of the Inca) has opened up new areas of inquiry.1 The basic structure of this manuscript is similar to that of the first edition, published in 1605 in Lisbon, Portugal, but it varies in the order in which the themes are introduced. Whole paragraphs in the manuscript are exactly the same as those in the published edition. Other topics, however, are discussed in only a few lines, whereas they fill several pages in the 1605 edition. Although...

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12. History as Autobiography in Garcilaso Inca

José Anadón

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pp. 149-164

Chroniclers of all times have provided autobiographical references in their works. There are numerous motives for such autobiographical revelations, but it would seem that some predominate, namely, a desire to disclose one's personal memoirs at a certain point in one's life, a psychological need to confide in others, and perhaps a wish to impress and dazzle the reader by creating a singular image of oneself. An autobiography can express, in various combinations and proportions, self-love or...

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APPENDIX A: Debating Garcilaso

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pp. 165-182

Gathered here are the ideas expressed in spirited verbal exchanges following the three principal sessions of the symposium on Garcilaso Inca held at the University of Notre Dame from March 31 to April 2, 1996. After the speakers had summarized the contents of their essays (which appear complete in this volume) , an enthusiastic response ensued from the audience composed of fellow participants, colleagues, and students from Notre Dame and institutions across the country. The answers of...

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APPENDIX B: The Inca of Durand: Annotated Bibliography on Garcilaso Inca and Other Topics in the Work of José Durand

Paul P. Firbas

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pp. 183-220

The present bibliography brings together the works of the Peruvian Professor José Durand ( 1925- 1990) , which were published both during his life and posthumously. With few exceptions, it excludes book reviews and articles which appeared in newspapers or cultural supplements. Durand wrote for the Mexican newspapers Novedades, Excélsior, El Sol, and Sábado. He also contributed to the Peruvian dailies El Comercio and La Prensa, serving for the latter as editor of the cultural supplement from 1953 to i956 and...

Works Cited

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pp. 221-234

Contributors

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pp. 235-238

Index of Names

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pp. 239-245