Cover

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Half Title, Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

List of Illustrations

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pp. ix-x

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xii

Unknowingly, I have been working on Killing Others for the past fifteen years, as the book synthesizes, remolds, and extends insight I gained from past projects on colonial state legacies, state formation and transformation, the impact of colonialism on ethnic violence, and the effects of education on ethnic violence. ...

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Introduction: Killing Others

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pp. 1-15

Like many of their peers, Elias Clayton, Elmer Jackson, and Isaac McGhie left the southern United States in the early 1900s in search of the American dream in the North. Their dream turned into a nightmare. On June 15, 1920, all three young men were falsely accused of raping a young woman and arrested. Despite their innocence, they must have hoped and prayed that their steel prison cells ...

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1. The Nature and Nurture of Ethnic Violence

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pp. 16-36

When you compare the two, it is amazing to think that chihuahuas descended from wolves only a few thousand years ago. Clearly demonstrating our creative intelligence, humans somehow transformed something big, shaggy, fierce, graceful, and athletic into a creature that can only jokingly be described by any of these adjectives. Although dangerous, wolves were easily domesticated because of their social and hierarchic natures. ...

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2. Modernity and Ethnic Violence

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pp. 37-60

My wife and I once had a small disagreement during a taxi ride through a rural region of India. The disagreement began after she casually remarked that the region was not very “modern.” With a heavy dose of academic condescension, I replied that she should avoid using “modern” because our driver likely found her statement insulting. Indeed, whereas “modern” can have either positive or negative connotations, being labeled its opposite is a universal insult. ...

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3. Teaching Peace or Violence?

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pp. 61-81

Because of human diversity, poor data, and the extremely complicated nature of our social world, the social sciences are inexact sciences, and one must view all social scientific claims with a heavy dose of skepticism. To increase our confidence in the validity of social scientific findings, a major goal of nearly all social scientists is to collect more and better data about the social world. ...

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4. The Origins of Ethnic Consciousness

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pp. 82-100

The tops of many mountain ranges have fossilized remains of creatures that lived on the ocean floor millions of years ago. Early attempts to explain this anomaly turned to the Bible and saw these fossils as proof of a flood so great that aquatic creatures lived atop submerged peaks. Besides religious conviction, this explanation had considerable appeal because it coincided with the common perception of mountains as eternal and unchanging. ...

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5. The Origins of Ethnic Pluralism

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pp. 101-121

France is an exceptional country in a number of ways. To list a few examples, recent surveys find that it leads the world in average annual wine consumption (71 bottles per adult), average annual cheese consumption (59 pounds per capita), and the average annual frequency of intercourse (137 times per adult). With nearly eighty million visits annually, France also receives more tourists than any other country in the world, ...

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6. Emotional Prejudice and Ethnic Obligations: Motives of Ethnic Violence

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pp. 122-142

In cases of murder, establishing motive is a central task for prosecutors, but this activity is highly conjectural because one cannot get inside the heads of people to read their minds. And even if this were possible, factors motivating murder are frequently complex, and the motives described by admitted murderers are commonly ex post facto rationalizations that are oversimplified or erroneous. ...

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7. States and Ethnic Violence: Containing Violence or Instigating Unrest?

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pp. 143-155

Although Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacques Rousseau were both founding figures of liberal philosophy, they had starkly opposing views of both the state of nature and the nature of states. Hobbes believed that humans are base and violent and that states are needed to suppress our ugly natures. Rousseau saw our state of nature as true freedom and believed that states debase and entrap us. ...

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8. From Worst to First: Declining Ethnic Violence in Early Modernizers

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pp. 156-168

“Lies, damn lies, and statistics” is one of many well-known phrases attributed to Mark Twain, and it describes how skillful practitioners can manipulate quantitative data to support weak and faulty arguments. Chapter 2 presented a variety of statistics offering evidence that ethnic violence has become increasingly prevalent over the past two hundred years, ...

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9. Modernity and Ethnic Violence in Africa, Asia, and Latin America

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pp. 169-194

When European colonialists first arrived in the region that is presently Burundi and Rwanda, they were surprised to find a complicated social system in what they considered the heart of darkness. Given European notions of superiority, colonialists still felt the need to introduce “civilization” to the region’s peoples. One way was through a program called Social Homes. ...

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10. The Future of Ethnic Violence

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pp. 195-212

Futurology is a field of study that tries to predict the future. One of its main focuses is new technologies and their potential transformative effects. A number of futurologists, for example, consider how the incorporation of computer technologies into our brains will help us learn anything from European history to Mandarin to advanced algebra by simply downloading information directly into our modified cyber-brains. ...

References

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pp. 213-232

Index

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pp. 233-239