On 8 January 2012 the ANC, the oldest African nationalist organisation, celebrated its one hundredth anniversary. This historic event generated significant public debate within the ANC and in South African society at large. There is no better time to critically reflect on the ANC’s historical trajectory and struggle against colonialism and apartheid than in its centennial year. Covering a broad chronological and geographical spectrum and using a diverse range of sources, the contributors extend the historiography of the ANC by tapping into marginal spaces in ANC history. By moving away from the celebratory mode that has characterised much contemporary discussion of the centenary, the contributors suggest that the relationship between the histories of earlier struggles and the present needs to be rethought in more complex terms. Collectively, the book chapters challenge hegemonic narratives that have become an established part of South Africa’s national discourse since 1994. By opening up debate on controversial or obscured aspects of the ANC’s century-long history, this book sets out an agenda for future research. It is directed at a wide readership with an interest in understanding the historical roots of South Africa’s current politics.