Cover

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Half Title Page, Series Page, Title Page, Copyright

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Series Foreword

Joel A. Carpenter

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It used to be that those of us from the global North who study world Christianity had to work hard to make the case for its relevance. Why should thoughtful people learn more about Christianity in places far away from Europe and North America? The Christian religion, many have heard by now, has more than 60 percent of its adherents living outside of Europe and North America. ...

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Preface

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pp. ix-xii

The idea for this book came about quite inadvertently while I was in the middle of researching another project. I came across the African newspapers available online via the World Newspaper Archives. The websites for the archives were searchable, allowing me to type in names or events and then call up all of the articles in selected newspapers published on the subject for a given time. ...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xiii-xiv

This book grew out of research made possible through advancements in modern technology. Even a generation ago, the amount of data through which I have sorted would have taken perhaps a decade and tens of thousands of miles of travel to process. But online archives and Internet search engines allowed me to complete the research in a much shorter time and primarily from the computer in my den. ...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-6

In the early decades of the European colonial era, African Christians challenged European domination through use of a strategy of social development via Christianization appropriated from their understanding of African American Christian life. The strategy built upon the establishment of schools like Booker T. Washington’s Tuskegee Institute. ...

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1. The Spectacle Reversed: Shaping the African Response to Missionary Christianity and European Conquest

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pp. 7-30

In the nineteenth century, Africa experienced the great age of European Christian missions. Across Africa, but especially along the western coast north of the Cameroons and the Atlantic and Indian Ocean coasts of what became the Union of South Africa, thousands of missionaries from Europe and North America traveled to the continent to preach the Christian message. ...

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2. Making People: Becoming Educators and Entrepreneurs at Hampton and Tuskegee

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pp. 31-54

The idea of industrial education that caught the attention of black Christians in Africa at the end of the nineteenth century had its start across the Atlantic at Hampton Institute in Hampton, Virginia, where Booker T. Washington trained. The school served as the prototype for Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama, which Washington developed. ...

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3. The Advancement of the African: Redefining Ethiopianism and the Challenge of Adversarial Christianity

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pp. 55-80

In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, thanks to European and North American missionaries, innumerable new Christian communities came into existence in Africa. Even where Christianity had already taken root, Christian life was newly invigorated. ...

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4. An Attentive Ear: Hearing the Call of Booker T. and the Pathway to Industrial Education in West Africa

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pp. 81-106

The educational programs and strategies to help African Americans that Booker T. Washington was pursuing in the United States at Tuskegee drew significant attention in West African newspapers. From 1880 to 1920, in the fifteen newspapers for which some content is available, there are more than two hundred articles that speak in some way about Washington, his school, ...

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5. On the Same Lines as Tuskegee: Contesting Tuskegee and Government Intervention in South Africa

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pp. 107-132

In the lands that ultimately united to form the Union of South Africa, the treatment of Booker T. Washington and Tuskegee was both more widespread and more complex than it was in West Africa. A number of African newspapers regularly featured articles about the man and his school, all of which could be recognized as advancing some version of an Ethiopianist agenda. ...

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6. Men Who Can Build Bridges: Retrieving Washington’s Influence in the Work of Marcus Garvey and Thomas Jesse Jones

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pp. 133-158

African Ethiopianists initially conceptualized opposition to their ambitions as coming primarily from Christian missions. By the 1910s events and developments such as described in the two previous chapters had made it obvious even to them that white governments in Africa posed a greater roadblock to the realization of their aspirations. ...

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Conclusion

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pp. 159-166

Christianity in Africa has been the subject of significant scholarship in numerous research fields. Incongruously, the least-deciphered aspect of the spread of the faith on the continent has been the consciousness of African Christians themselves. The thoughts and motivations of Africans who self-identified as Christians remain dimly understood. ...

Notes

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pp. 167-190

Works Cited

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pp. 191-202

Index

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pp. 203-205