Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-iv

Contents

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pp. v-vi

Contributors

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pp. vii-viii

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Preface

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pp. ix-xii

As we approach the fourth decade of the Third Wave of global democratization, global democratic progress remains at something of an impasse. Although the Arab Spring raised hopes for a new burst of democratic transitions, most Arab states remain mired in authoritarianism or stuck at various stages of transition that will...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xiii-xvi

This book began with a conference in Quito, Ecuador, co-sponsored by the International Forum for Democratic Studies of the National Endowment for Democracy and Grupo FARO , a leading public policy think tank in Ecuador. We would like to extend our sincere thanks to both institutions, and to the Network of Democracy...

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Introduction: Evaluating Political Clientelism

Diego Abente Brun

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pp. 1-14

During the Third Wave of democratization, almost all countries in Latin America and a large number in Africa and Asia became consolidated democracies in the sense that democracy became broadly accepted as “the only game in town.” Yet the democratic systems in many of these countries remain characterized by poor quality...

Part I: Lessons in Clientelism from Latin America

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1. Partisan Linkages and Social Policy Delivery in Argentina and Chile

Ernesto Calvo and María Victoria Murillo

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pp. 17-38

Widespread democratization since the 1970s has generated a reassessment of the literature on party-voter linkages, with a special emphasis on whether distributive ties should be characterized as programmatic or clientelistic (see the introduction to this volume). As the delivery of private and public goods for electoral gain has become...

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2. Chile’s Education Transfers, 2001–2009

Juan Pablo Luna and Rodrigo Mardones

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pp. 39-64

The political targeting of social policy in Chile diverges from the standard predictions in the literature on distributive politics and clientelism. In this case, political distortions of social policy allocations are marginal. We attribute this result to the absence of a political-machine party in the system and to the presence of a strong...

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3. The Future of Peru’s Brokered Democracy

Martin Tanaka and Carlos Meléndez

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pp. 65-87

Analyses of political representation in Peru tend to refer to the weakness of political parties and civil society organizations, of a “democracy without parties,” which would go hand in hand with the scant legitimacy of the country’s democratic institutions. The limits of conventional mechanisms of representation may be relatively...

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4. Teachers, Mayors, and the Transformation of Clientelism in Colombia

Kent Eaton and Christopher Chambers-Ju

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pp. 88-113

Even for Latin America, a region widely marked by patron-client relations, Colombia stands out for the pervasiveness and extensiveness of its clientelistic networks. In part this is because clientelism requires elections, and few countries in Latin America have accrued as impressive an electoral record as Colombia. In the...

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5. Lessons Learned While Studying Clientelistic Politics in the Gray Zone

Javier Auyero

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pp. 114-129

It has been 10 years since the publication of Poor People’s Politics and 15 since I began the first ethnographic study of “political clientelism” in Argentina. During this decade, scholarship on the subject has expanded substantially. We now know much more about the factors associated with patronage spending and about the relationship...

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6. Political Clientelism and Social Policy in Brazil

Simeon Nichter

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pp. 130-152

Clientelism undermines social policy in contemporary Brazil and is a serious problem that the innovative Bolsa Familia program only partially addresses. Most researchers agree that Bolsa Familia, the world’s largest conditional cash transfer program, is relatively well insulated from clientelistic pressures and has contributed...

Part II: Lessons in Clientelism from Other Regions

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7. Patronage, Democracy, and Ethnic Politics in India

Kanchan Chandra

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pp. 155-173

India’s democracy has developed over time into a “patronage-democracy”—a democracy in which elections function as auctions for the sale of government services. The most basic goods that a government should provide—security of life and property, access to education, provision of public health facilities, a minimum standard...

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8. Linking Capital and Countryside: Patronage and Clientelism in Japan, Thailand, and the Philippines

Paul D. Hutchcroft

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pp. 174-203

While patronage is found in a wide range of political systems, it has a differential impact on the territorial character of polities and on their overall quality of governance. James Scott speaks of the capacity of patronage to act as “political cement,”1 and Robert Putnam observes that late-nineteenth-century patronage practices in Italy...

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9. Eastern European Postcommunist Variants of Political Clientelism and Social Policy

Linda J. Cook

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pp. 204-229

Experiences with political clientelism in Eastern Europe’s postcommunist states differ from those of the other regions discussed in this volume. From the end of the Second World War until 1989, Eastern Europe was governed by monopolistic communist political regimes. Authoritarian and politically stratified, these regimes featured noncompetitive...

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10. The Democratization of Clientelism in Sub-Saharan Africa

Nicolas Van de Walle

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pp. 230-252

Sub-Saharan Africa1 developed a reputation for bad governance and corruption in the 1970s and 1980s when political leaders from the region such as President Mobutu Sese Seko of Zaire or President Kenneth Moi of Kenya became notorious for their egregious corruption even as their populations endured dreadful poverty...

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Conclusion: Defining Political Clientelism’s Persistence

Beatriz Magaloni

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pp. 253-262

Trading selective benefits for political support is common in many democracies. Rather than presenting a summary of each of the chapters in this book, the goal of the following pages will be to provide a synthesis of some conceptual issues, including how to define clientelism, how it shapes poverty relief and social policy...

Index

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pp. 263-267