In this Book

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Book Two of the Summa Contra Gentiles series examines God's freedom in creation, his power as creator of all things, and the nature of man, particularly the unity of soul and body within man.

The Summa Contra Gentiles is not merely the only complete summary of Christian doctrine that St. Thomas has written, but also a creative and even revolutionary work of Christian apologetics composed at the precise moment when Christian thought needed to be intellectually creative in order to master and assimilate the intelligence and wisdom of the Greeks and the Arabs. In the Summa Aquinas works to save and purify the thought of the Greeks and the Arabs in the higher light of Christian Revelation, confident that all that had been rational in the ancient philosophers and their followers would become more rational within Christianity.

Book 1 of the Summa deals with God; Book 3, Providence; and Book 4, Salvation.

Table of Contents

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  1. Cover
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  1. Title Page, Copyright
  2. pp. 1-4
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  1. Contents
  2. pp. 5-10
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  1. Introduction
  2. James F. Anderson
  3. pp. 11-20
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  1. Bibliography
  2. pp. 21-28
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  1. Chapter 1. The Connection Between the Following Considerations and the Preceding Ones
  2. pp. 29-30
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  1. Chapter 2. That the Consideration of Creatures is Useful for Instruction of Faith
  2. pp. 30-32
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  1. Chapter 3. That Knowledge of the Nature of Creatures Serves to Destroy Errors Concerning God
  2. pp. 32-34
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  1. Chapter 4. That the Philosopher and the Theologian Consider Creatures in Different Ways
  2. pp. 34-36
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  1. Chapter 5. Order of Procedure
  2. p. 36
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  1. Chapter 6. That It Is Proper to God to Be the Source of the Being of Other Things
  2. pp. 36-38
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  1. Chapter 7. That Active Power Exists in God
  2. pp. 38-39
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  1. Chapter 8. That God’s Power is His Substance
  2. pp. 39-40
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  1. Chapter 9. That God’s Power is His Action
  2. pp. 40-41
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  1. Chapter 10. How Power is Attributed to God
  2. pp. 41-42
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  1. Chapter 11. That Something is Said of God in Relation to Creatures
  2. pp. 42-43
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  1. Chapter 12. That Relations Predicated of God in Reference to Creatures Do Not Really Exist in Him
  2. pp. 43-44
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  1. Chapter 13–14. How the Aforesaid Relations are Predicated of God
  2. pp. 44-46
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  1. Chapter 15. That God is to All Things the Cause of Being
  2. pp. 46-49
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  1. Chapter 16. That God Brought Things into Being from Nothing
  2. pp. 49-53
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  1. Chapter 17. That Creation is Neither Motion nor Change
  2. pp. 54-55
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  1. Chapter 18. How Objections Against Creation are Solved
  2. pp. 55-56
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  1. Chapter 19. That in Creation No Succession Exists
  2. pp. 56-58
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  1. Chapter 20. That No Body is Capable of Creative Action
  2. pp. 58-60
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  1. Chapter 21. That the Act of Creating Belongs to God Alone
  2. pp. 60-64
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  1. Chapter 22. That God is Omnipotent
  2. pp. 65-67
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  1. Chapter 23. That God Does Not Act by Natural Necessity
  2. pp. 68-71
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  1. Chapter 24. That God Acts Conformably to His Wisdom
  2. pp. 71-72
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  1. Chapter 25. How the Omnipotent God is Said to be Incapable of Certain Things
  2. pp. 73-76
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  1. Chapter 26. That the Divine Intellect Is Not Confined to Limited Effects
  2. pp. 77-78
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  1. Chapter 27. That the Divine Will Is Not Restricted to Certain Effect
  2. p. 79
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  1. Chapter 28-29. How Dueness Is Entailed in the Production of Things
  2. pp. 79-84
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  1. Chapter 30. How Absolute Necessity Can Exist in Created Things
  2. pp. 85-90
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  1. Chapter 31. That It Is Not Necessary for Creatures to Have Always Existed
  2. pp. 91-93
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  1. Chapter 32. Arguments of Those Who Wish to Demonstrate the World’s Eternity from the Point of View of God
  2. pp. 93-97
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  1. Chapter 33. Arguments of Those Who Wish to Prove the Eternity of the World from the Standpoint of Creatures
  2. pp. 97-99
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  1. Chapter 34. Arguments to Prove the Eternity of the World from the Point of View of the Making [of Things]
  2. pp. 100-101
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  1. Chapter 35. Solution of the Foregoing Arguments, and First of Those Taken from the Standpoint of God
  2. pp. 102-106
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  1. Chapter 36. Solution of the Arguments Proposed from the Point of View of the Things Made
  2. pp. 106-108
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  1. Chapter 37. Solution of the Arguments Taken from the Point of View of the Making of Things
  2. pp. 109-111
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  1. Chapter 38. Arguments by Which Some Try to Show That the World is Not Eternal
  2. pp. 112-115
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  1. Chapter 39. That the Distinction of Things is Not the Result of Chance
  2. pp. 115-118
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  1. Chapter 40. That Matter Is Not the First Cause of the Distinction of Things
  2. pp. 118-120
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  1. Chapter 41. That a Contrariety of Agents Does Not Account for the Distinction of Things
  2. pp. 120-124
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  1. Chapter 42. That the First Cause of the Distinction of Things Is Not the World of Secondary Agents
  2. pp. 124-128
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  1. Chapter 43. That the Distinction of Things is not Caused by Some Secondary Agent Introducing Diverse Forms into Matter
  2. pp. 128-131
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  1. Chapter 44. That the Distinction of Things Does Not Have Its Source in the Diversity of Merits or Demerits
  2. pp. 131-136
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  1. Chapter 45. The True First Cause of the Distinction of Things
  2. pp. 136-139
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  1. Chapter 46. That the Perfection of the Universe Required the Existence of Some Intellectual Creatures
  2. pp. 139-142
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  1. Chapter 47. That Intellectual Substances are Endowed with Will
  2. pp. 142-144
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  1. Chapter 48. That Intellectual Substances Have Freedom of Choice in Acting
  2. pp. 144-146
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  1. Chapter 49. That the Intellectual Substance is Not a Body
  2. pp. 146-149
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  1. Chapter 50. That Intellectual Substances Are Immaterial
  2. pp. 149-151
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  1. Chapter 51. That the Intellectual Substance Is Not a Material Form
  2. p. 151
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  1. Chapter 52. That in Created Intellectual Substances, Being and What is Differ
  2. pp. 152-154
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  1. Chapter 53. That in Created Intellectual Substances There Is Act and Potentiality
  2. pp. 155-156
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  1. Chapter 54. That the Composition of Substance and Being Is Not the Same as the Composition of Matter and Form
  2. pp. 156-158
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  1. Chapter 55. That Intellectual Substances Are Incorruptible
  2. pp. 158-164
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  1. Chapter 56. In What Way an Intellectual Substance Can be United to the Body
  2. pp. 164-168
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  1. Chapter 57. The Position of Plato Concerning the Union of the Intellectual Soul with the Body
  2. pp. 168-172
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  1. Chapter 58. That in Man There Are Not Three Souls, Nutritive, Sensitive, and Intellective
  2. pp. 173-177
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  1. Chapter 59. That Man’s Possible Intellect Is Not a Separate Substance
  2. pp. 177-182
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  1. Chapter 60. That Man Derives His Specific Nature, Not from the Passive, but from the Possible, Intellect
  2. pp. 182-191
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  1. Chapter 61. That This Theory Is Contrary to the Teaching of Aristotle
  2. pp. 191-193
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  1. Chapter 62. Against Alexander's Opinion Concerning the Possible Intellect
  2. pp. 193-196
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  1. Chapter 63. That the Soul Is Not a Temperament, as Galen Maintained
  2. p. 197
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  1. Chapter 64. That the Soul Is Not a Harmony
  2. pp. 198-199
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  1. Chapter 65. That the Soul Is Not a Body
  2. pp. 199-201
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  1. Chapter 66. Against Those Who Maintain that Intellect and Sense Are the Same
  2. pp. 201-202
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  1. Chapter 67. Against Those Who Hold that the Possible Intellect Is the Imagination
  2. pp. 202-203
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  1. Chapter 68. How an Intellectual Substance Can Be the Form of the Body
  2. pp. 203-207
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  1. Chapter 69. Solution of the Arguments Advanced Above in Order to Show that an Intellectual Substance Cannot Be United to the Body as Its Form
  2. pp. 207-209
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  1. Chapter 70. That According to the Words of Aristotle the Intellect Must Be Said to be United to the Body as Its Form
  2. pp. 210-212
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  1. Chapter 71. That the Soul Is United to the Body Without Intermediation
  2. p. 212
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  1. Chapter 72. That the Whole Soul Is in the Whole Body and in Each of Its Parts
  2. pp. 213-215
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  1. Chapter 73. That There Is Not One Possible Intellect in All Men
  2. pp. 215-227
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  1. Chapter 74. Concerning the Theory of Avicenna, who said that intelligible forms are not preserved in the possible intellect
  2. pp. 227-232
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  1. Chapter 75. Solution of the Seemingly Demonstrative Arguments For the Unity of the Possible Intellect
  2. pp. 232-238
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  1. Chapter 76. That the Agent Intellect Is Not a Separate substance, But Part of the Soul
  2. pp. 239-245
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  1. Chapter 77. That It Is Not Impossible for the Possible and Agent Intellect to Exist Together in the One Substance of the Soul
  2. pp. 246-248
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  1. Chapter 78. That Aristotle Held Not that the Agent Intellect Is a Separate Substance, But that It is a Part of the Soul
  2. pp. 249-254
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  1. Chapter 79. That the Human Soul Does Not Perish When the Body is Corrupted
  2. pp. 254-259
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  1. Chapter 80-81. Arguments to Prove that the Corruption of the Body Entails that of the Soul [and Their Solution]
  2. pp. 259-266
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  1. Chapter 82. That the Souls of Brute Animals are Not Immortal
  2. pp. 267-271
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  1. Chapter 83. That the Human Soul Begins to Exist When the Body Does
  2. pp. 272-284
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  1. Chapter 84. Solution of the Preceding Arguments
  2. pp. 284-286
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  1. Chapter 85. That the Soul Is Not Made of God’s Substance
  2. pp. 287-290
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  1. Chapter 86. That the Human Soul is Not Transmitted with the Semen
  2. pp. 290-293
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  1. Chapter 87. That the Human Soul Is Brought into Being Through the Creative Action of God
  2. pp. 293-295
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  1. Chapter 88. Arguments Designed to Prove that the Human Soul is Formed From the Semen
  2. pp. 296-299
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  1. Chapter 89. Solution of the Preceding Arguments
  2. pp. 299-308
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  1. Chapter 90. That an Intellectual Substance is United Only to a Human Body as Its Form
  2. pp. 308-312
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  1. Chapter 91. That There Are Some Intellectual Substances Which are Not United to Bodies
  2. pp. 312-316
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  1. Chapter 92. Concerning the Great Number of Separate Substances
  2. pp. 316-320
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  1. Chapter 93. Of the Non-Existence of a Plurality of Separate Substances of One Species
  2. pp. 320-322
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  1. Chapter 94. That the Separate Substance and the Soul are Not of the Same Species
  2. pp. 322-323
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  1. Chapter 95. How in Separate Substances Genus and Species Are to Be Taken
  2. pp. 323-325
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  1. Chapter 96. That Separate Substances Do Not Receive Their Knowledge from Sensible Things
  2. pp. 325-328
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  1. Chapter 97. That the Intellect of a Separate Substance Is Always in Act of Understanding
  2. pp. 328-329
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  1. Chapter 98. How One Separate Substance Understands Another
  2. pp. 330-337
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  1. Chapter 99. That Separate Substances Know Material Things
  2. pp. 337-338
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  1. Chapter 100. That Separate Substances Know Singulars
  2. pp. 339-341
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  1. Chapter 101. Whether Separate Substances Have Natural Knowledge of All Things at the Same Time
  2. pp. 341-342
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  1. Subject Index
  2. pp. 343-348
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  1. Index of Proper Names
  2. pp. 349-351
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