Cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. 1-6

Contents

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pp. 7-8

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Preface

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pp. 9-10

Those engaged in social science research on the USSR have evinced a steadily increasing interest in Russian and Soviet census data. Along with this interest, however, has come the realization that using this vast reservoir of information on Russian and Soviet society entails many practical problems. Although often innovative and far-reaching, attempts to deal with these difficulties have usually taken place in isolation, as individual specialists pursue their own research agendas....

Contributors

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pp. 11-12

How to Use This Guide

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pp. 13-14

Part One: General and Topical Essays

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pp. 15-16

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1. On the Use of Russian and Soviet Censuses for Research

Ralph S. Clem

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pp. 17-35

Seeking better to understand human societies, social scientists constantly confront the question of how to investigate socioeconomic and political issues. If these issues suggest themselves and are properly framed, the main problem then becomes the manner in which evidence can be marshaled, evaluated, and used analytically....

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2. Data Comparability Problems in the Study of the Soviet Population

Robert A. Lewis

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pp. 36-47

Problems in the comparability of census data-that is, the extent to which definitions and geographic units vary over time-constitute a major obstacle to research in the social sciences. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the problems of data comparability in the Russian and Soviet censuses with respect to territory, the definition of various categories, and the periods between censuses. Also, details of a major...

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3. A History of Russian and Soviet Censuses

Lee Schwartz

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pp. 48-69

Many of the problems associated with the use of Russian and Soviet census data, as described in later chapters in this volume, derive from the historical and political context in which the different enumerations were conducted and the state of the art of census-taking at those times. Although the earlier enumerations were less technically sophisticated and less accurate than more recent ones, the availability of published figures...

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4. The Ethnic and Language Dimensions in Russian and Soviet Censuses

Brian D. Silver

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pp. 70-97

The Soviet government emphasizes its leading role in the social and economic transformation of society. Information gathered from censuses is important for the periodic assessment of state policies. Therefore, census data on nationality and native language of the population serve as a way both to determine the ethnic composition of Soviet society and, in conjunction with other data, to assess and compare the progress of...

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5. Occupation and Work Force Data in Russian and Soviet Censuses

Michael Paul Sacks

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pp. 98-112

Occupations constitute a classification of actlv1ties of individuals which result in the production of economic goods and services. The term "occupations" is commonly distinguished from "industries," defined as a "classification of the activities of organizations" involved in such production (Stinchcombe, 1983: 108). Throughout the world, occupation is a critical determinant of an individual's social status. In preindustrial...

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6. Urbanization and Migration Data in Russian and Soviet Censuses

Richard H. Rowland

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pp. 113-130

Urbanization and migration, which collectively comprise population redistribution, have been especially important in Russia and the USSR. This region has experienced perhaps the most rapid movement to cities of any major region in history and also some of the most significant long-distance internal migrations of any country (Lewis and Rowland, 1979). Urbanization and migration have an added importance because of...

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7. Marriage, Family, and Fertility Data in Russian and Soviet Censuses

Barbara A. Anderson

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pp. 131-154

Soviet planners are interested in information on the fertility, marriage patterns, and family structure of the Soviet population because of the relevance of these data for monitoring and projecting population growth, for planning the demand for social services such as schools, for assessing social stability, and for studying the household economy. Both Soviet and Western researchers seek information on family and fertility in the Soviet...

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8. Education and Literacy Data in Russian and Soviet Censuses

Ronald D. Liebowitz

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pp. 155-170

Social scientists the world over require a knowledge of the quality and extensiveness of the education made available to, and attained by, individuals in the societies they are investigating. Education plays a pivotal role in shaping and integrating many of the changes that fall beneath the umbrella of "modernization," including increased literacy, urbanization, migration, change in the occupational and work-force...

Part Two: Index and Guide to the Russian and Soviet Censuses, 1897 to 1979

Peter R. Craumer

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pp. 171-172

Contents

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pp. 173-176

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Introduction

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pp. 177-186

The purpose of this guide is to provide a detailed list and description of the contents of all major Russian and Soviet population censuses since 1897, with an index to enable the researcher to locate these census materials by subject. To organize and inventory sets of data as extensive, heterogeneous, and complex as these censuses, it was necessary to make numerous procedural decisions concerning the structure of the index, the...

List of Census Tables

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pp. 187-268

Keyword Cross-Index

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pp. 269-303

Geographic Units of the Russian and Soviet Censuses

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pp. 304-325