Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-iv

Contents

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pp. v-vi

List of Illustrations

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-xii

I have incurred many personal and intellectual debts writing this book. I wish to acknowledge the early encouragement I received from James Brennan, Juliette Levy, Robert Patch, and David Pion-Berlin during the completion of my graduate...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-8

Chilean soldiers transformed their country twice in the twentieth century. In the first half they enlarged the role of the state and helped precipitate radical changes leading to the 1925 constitution. In the second half they implemented...

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1. Evolution of a Proud Tradition: Chile’s Armed Forces to 1931

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pp. 9-33

When Pedro de Valdivia left Peru in 1540 to conquer the forbidding lands south of the Incan empire, his expedition promised hardship. Five years earlier Diego de Almagro had set out with five hundred Spanish soldiers and several thousand...

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2. First Years in Uniform, 1931–1945

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pp. 34-50

As a child Augusto Pinochet Ugarte dreamed of a career in the army. He grew up hearing tales of battles in the Peruvian sierra from his great-uncle, a veteran of the War of the Pacific, and stories from his godfather about serving in the...

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3. The Gathering Storm: Postwar Politics and Institutional Frustration, 1945–1970

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pp. 51-77

On the evening of October 23, 1947, Captain Augusto Pinochet Ugarte, then thirty-two years of age, received orders to assemble his combat personnel in motorized columns for a “serious national emergency.” Because his unit was...

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4. Intellectual and Professional Formation, 1945–1970

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pp. 78-95

In the twentieth century Chile’s armed forces belonged to a global community of military professionals who shared ideas and closely observed one another.1 Europe’s great industrial wars (1914–1945) offered important lessons about combat...

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5. Salvador Allende and the Armed Forces, 1970–1973

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pp. 96-134

Scattered shouts of “Viva Compañero Allende!” echoed in army and navy barracks as news of Salvador Allende Gossens’s victory in Chile’s 1970 presidential election swept the nation on the night of September 4.1 Rank-and-file...

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6. Soldiers before Pinochetismo, 1973–1976

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pp. 135-163

At 8:42 a.m. on September 11, 1973, the junta issued its first public statement demanding Salvador Allende’s surrender. Left-wing media outlets received a warning to suspend their activities or face aerial and ground assault. The...

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7. Defying the World and Restructuring the State, 1977–1981

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pp. 164-182

Chile in the mid-1970s was isolated, friendless, and vulnerable. Santiago faced arms embargoes from Western countries and moral censure from the United Nations. In June 1978 US ambassador to Chile George Landau indicated to his...

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8. Circling the Wagons: The Survival of the Pinochet Regime, 1982–1986

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pp. 183-202

On March 11, 1981, Augusto Pinochet began serving an eight-year term of office in accord with the 1980 constitution. This was an enormous triumph for a man who had established a legal framework, approved by national plebiscite, to...

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9. Mission Accomplished: The Transition to Protected Democracy, 1987–1990

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pp. 203-215

When the armed forces handed power back to civilians in 1990, it was from a position of strength. The junta had controlled the process leading back to democracy, and the 1980 constitution enshrined a tutelary role for soldiers in the...

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Epilogue

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pp. 216-220

Before retiring from active duty Augusto Pinochet said, “The army does not move a feather if unmolested. The lion sleeps peacefully, but when attacked it becomes angry.  .  .  It would be best to leave the army and the armed forces...

Notes

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pp. 221-258

Bibliography

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pp. 259-276

Index

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pp. 277-288