Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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p. vii

Illustrations

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p. viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

LIKE THE STORY IT TELLS, this book has a long history. My research began at Oxford University under the direction of Michael Kaser and Margaret Gowing; I also benefited from a year at the University of Pennsylvania with Thomas P. Hughes. Since then, an International Research and Exchange Board fellowship gave me an invaluable year in Soviet archives...

Abbreviations and Russian Terms

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pp. xi-xii

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1. Introduction: The Shaping of a Technology

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pp. 1-7

IN DECEMBER 1920, electrical engineer and Bolshevik Gleb M . Krzhizhanovskii displayed an illuminated map of a future electrified Russia to convince the 8th Congress of Soviets to approve a plan for state electrification. Moscow's generating capacity was so low, however, that lighting the bulbs on the map resulted in blacking out parts...

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2. Government and Growth in Imperial Russia, 1870–1886

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pp. 8-41

T HE DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTRIFICATION exemplifies the transfer and diffusion of a new technology into Russian society and the growing technological gap beŁween Russia and the West. Electric lighting, power, and traction advanced greatly, but their geographic diffusion and intensity of application trailed the West's. In this chapter I explore five...

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3. Electrification, 1886–1914

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pp. 42-98

ELECTRIFICATION GREW SLOWLY in Russia, especially compared with the West. Over a decade passed between the first Russian commercial utility in 1886 and the first large wave of utilities elsewhere in the country. Another decade passed before uti1ities truly surged into Russian towns and cities. The Russian...

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4. The Rise of Electrification, 1914–1917

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pp. 99-120

WORLD WAR I was the single most important factor in the transition from electrification in Russia to Russian electrification. The war drastically worsened the environment for utilities, which lost their technology, financing, and fuel just as military requirements sharply increased demand for electricity. This inability to satisfy wartime needs brought electric...

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5. Feasting Eyes, Hungry Stomachs, 1917–1920

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pp. 121-150

DURING 1917-20, Russian society underwent massive upheavals unparalleled since the Time of Troubles three centuries earlier. Ił was an era of revolution, of terror, of starvation, of epidemics, and of that harshest of conflicts, civil war. In February 1917, the tsarist government disintegrated and a duma-based provisional government ruled until the Bolsheviks...

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6. GOELRO: The Creation of a Dream, 1920–1921

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pp. 151-191

IN DECEMBER 1920, the Communist party made electrification the new state technology by approving the GOELRO plan. The creation of this state plan of electrification took ten months; final approval in a modified form demanded another year. Instead of a future desideratum, electrification became the most important and immediate...

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7. The NEP Years, 1921–1926

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pp. 192-257

ALTHOUGH MILITARILY SUCCESSFUL, war communism failed to transform Russia into a socialist society. By 1921, the worsening political and economic situation demanded another approach. The Leningrad strikes, Kronstadt sailors' rebellion, and Tambov peasant uprising challenged the legitimacy...

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8. Conclusion: Shifting Grounds, Shifting Goals

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pp. 258-265

THE TEMPO OF electrification in the Soviet Union increased sharply after 1926 as part of the state's renewed industrialization drive and the five-year plans. Electrification's share of the state budget grew from 68 million rubles (1 . 7 percent) in 1925-26 to 179 million rubles...

Index

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pp. 266-274